"From the beginning of American chattel slavery in 1619 until the ratification of the Thriteenth Amendment in 1865, Africans were hunted like animals, captured, sold, tortured and raped. They experienced the worst kind of physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual abuse. . -Dr. Joy DeGruy Leary .
Poverty level affects mental health status. African Americans living below the poverty level, as compared to those over twice the poverty level, are 3 times more likely to report psychological distress.