John Bardeen, the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in a conversation with Dr. Isidor. I. Rabi who received the Physics Prize 1944 "for is resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" and German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg (Physics 1932). John Bardeen was jointly awarded his first Prize in 1956 for discovering the transistor effect: Amplifying electric signals proved decisive for telephony and radio. First, electron tubes were used for this. To develop smaller and more effective amplifiers, however, it was hoped that semiconductors could be used - materials with properties between those of electrical conductors and insulators. Quantum mechanics gave new insight into the properties of these materials. In 1947 John Bardeen and Walter Brattain produced a semiconductor amplifier, which was further developed by William Shockley. The component was named a "transistor". Nobel Prize in Physics 1972: When certain metals are cooled to extremely low temperatures, they become superconductors, conducting electrical current entirely without resistance. Based on quantum mechanics, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer formulated a theory for the phenomenon in 1957. At extremely low temperatures, the interaction between electrons and atoms in the metals' crystalline structure causes the electrons to pair up with one another. As a result, their movement becomes orderly, unlike the random movement at normal temperatures, and electrical resistance disappears.
Photo: Dutch National Archives, The Hague. Fotocollectie Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (ANEFO), 1945-1989. Unknown photographer, Wikimedia commons
#NobelPrize #Science #Physics #universityofillinois #Heisenberg #superconductivity #transistor