After the arrival of Dutch East India Company in 1619, the Roman Catholic Church was banned in the East Indies and only survived in Flores and Timor. The Netherlands was known to support Protestantism and tried to limit the influence and authority of the Holy See. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Netherlands fell under the French Empire, including its possession, the colony of Dutch East Indies. In 1806 Napoleon Bonaparte installed his Catholic younger brother Louis Napoleon (Dutch: Lodewijk) as the King of The Netherlands. Since then, the Catholic Church has been free to operate in the East Indies.
The Commissary General of Batavia, Du Bus de Gisignies (1825–1830), was credited with providing land to build the first Catholic church in Batavia. The former residence of General de Kock in the Weltevredeen area was renovated to be a church. Monseigneur Prinsen blessed and inaugurated the church on 6 November 1829 and named it "Our Lady of the Assumption." In 1859 the church was renovated in 1859, but collapsed on 9 April 1890.
The present church is the one rebuilt between 1891 and 1901. Pastor Antonius Dijkmans, SJ was appointed as the architect. Construction was halted due to a lack of funding,but the church's new bishop, Mgr E. S. Luypen, SJ, raised the necessary funds in The Netherlands and architect MJ Hulswit resumed construction in 1899. "De Kerk van Onze Lieve Vrowe ten Hemelopneming - The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption" was blessed and inaugurated by Mgr Edmundus Sybrandus Luypen, SJ on 21 April 1901. The church was renovated in 1988 and 2002.
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