Estimates of the significant financial burden attribute more than $100 billion dollars in yearly medical expenses to low back pain.
The sacrum is a wedge-shaped bone from superior to inferior, as well as posterior to anterior, held in suspension by ligamentous support with limited joint articulation The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is described as a true diarthrodial-type synovial joint consisting of matching articular surface separated by a joint space .This joint space contains synovial fluid, as do all synovial joints, envelope by a fibrous capsule. The SIJ, although
a synovial joint, is quite different from any other synovial joint due to some unique characteristics. The articulation between the wedge-shaped sacrum and the bilateral innominate bones is between macroscopic ridges on each surface. These macroscopic
ridges develop as adaptations to forces exerted on the joint. The SIJ has fibrocartilage in addition to hyaline cartilage.The articular surfaces of the SIJ are covered with hyaline cartilage. The iliac cartilage has the appearance of fibrocartilage.
The SIJ must support the weight of the upper body as well as tolerate ground reaction forces with gait. Therefore, the SIJ is supported by multiple ligaments that limit its mobility and provide stability to the joint. These ligaments are stressed with sacral and innominate motions. Additionally, these ligaments provide stability to the entire pelvic girdle.
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