Empress Alexandra with Tsarevich Alexei #romanov #romanovs #empress #tsarevich #royalfamily #royalty #russia #history

Anglo-Saxon Colony in Russia?
New England or Nova Anglia was a colony allegedly founded in the late 11th century by English refugees fleeing William the Conqueror. Its existence is only attested in two much later sources, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, the French Chronicon Universale Anonymi Laudunensis and Icelandic Játvarðar Saga. They tell the story of a journey from England through the Mediterranean Sea that led to Constantinople, where the English refugees fought off a siege by heathens and were rewarded by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. A group of them were given land to the north-east of the Black Sea, reconquering it and renaming their territory New England. It is generally agreed among historians that Anglo-Saxons, did migrate to Constantinople in these years and joined the Varangian Guard, something which can be shown beyond question from other sources, but the reality of an Anglo-Saxon colony in viking rus remains contested among historians


Russian Conquest of Hawaii?
During the First Russian circumnavigation of the globe, Russia established contact with Hawaiian king Kamehameha I in 1804. Russian vessels continued to visit the Kingdom irregularly, to trade. On January 29, 1815 a Russian vessel dropped anchor on Kauai. Captain James Bennett was ordered by RAC Governor Alexander Baranov to use 100,000 roubles worth of furs and other cargo to purchase needed food. On the next night the vessel ran aground in a storm. Bennett made an agreement with King Kaumualii, giving him the wrecked ship though its cargo remained Russian property. A misunderstanding resulted in Bennett pressing for revenge, but the governor favored a peaceful solution, however if that couldnt be obtained they would invade. Georg Anton Schäffer was sent to recieve compensation for the goods that were lost. Schaffer became friends with King Kamehameha, was given land and began exploring, in preparation for if hostilities arose.

Schaffer then went to Kaumuali to begin negotiations but to the Russians surprise the king accepted and even granted them a trade monopoly on sandlewood. Kaumualiʻi convinced Schäffer that the Russians could just as easily capture the whole archipelago. Schäffer promised that Tsar Alexander would help him to break free of Kamehameha's rule. Officially, Kaumualiʻi had pledged allegiance to Kamehameha in 1810. Kaumualiʻi probably never intended to give up power over the island; he thought he might reclaim his own kingdom with the help of Russia. With his permission Schaffer built forts Elizabeth, Alexander and Barclay-de-Tolly. When it was discovered that Schäffer did not have the backing of the Tsar, he was forced to leave Kauaʻi in the fall of 1817, thus ending the Schaffer affair.


A Russian in Medieval India?
Afanasy Nikitin was a Russian merchant from Tver and one of the first Europeans to travel to and document his visit to India. He described his trip in a narrative known as The Journey Beyond Three Seas. In 1466, Nikitin left Tver on a commercial trip to India. He travelled down the Volga River, and although he was attacked and robbed by Astrakhan Tatars he succeeded in reaching Derbent, where he joined Vasili Papin, the envoy of Ivan Greatto the shah of Shirvan. At Derbent, Nikitin vainly endeavoured to get means of returning to Russia; failing in this, he went on to Bakuand later Persia proper by crossing the Caspian Sea. He lived in Persia for one year.

In spring 1469, Nikitin arrived at Ormus and then, crossing the Arabian Sea, and making several prolonged stays along the way, reached the sultanate of Bahmani, where he lived for three years, making his living by horse-dealing. During that time he visited the Hindu sanctuary of Perwattum, which he called "the Jerusalem of the Hindus". On his way back, Nikitin visited Muscat, Fartak, Somolia, Trabzon and in 1472 arrived at Feodosiya by crossing the Black Sea. On his way to Tver, Nikitin died not far from Smolensk in the autumn of that year.

During his trip, Nikitin studied the population of India, its social system, government, military (he witnessed war-games featuring war elephants), its economy, religion, lifestyles, and trade goods. The abundance and trustworthiness of Nikitin's factual material provide a valuable source of information about India, Hormuz, Cambay, Calicut, Dabhol, Ceylon, Pegu and China; on royal progresses and other functions, both ecclesiastical and civil, at Bahmani and on the wonders of the great fair at Perwattum


The Russian General who sought to restore the Mongol Empire after WWI.
It may seem odd that a Russian would seek to restore the Mongol Empire, a state that oppressed the Russian people for century, but he did and his life is one of the most bizarre and intriguing of the 20th century. Roman von Ungern-Sternberg was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then a warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921. He was often referred to as the mad or bloody baron. Ungern was an arch-conservative pan-monarchist who aspired to restore the Russian monarchy under Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia and to revive the Mongol Empire under the rule of the Bogd Khan. In February 1921 he expelled Chinese troops from Mongolia and restored the monarchic power of the Bogd Khan.

During his five-month occupation of Outer Mongolia, Ungern imposed order on the capital city, Ulaanbaatar through fear, intimidation, and brutal violence against his opponents, particularly Bolshevik supporters. In June 1921 he went on to invade east Siberia in support of supposed anti-Bolshevik rebellions and to head off a Red Army-Mongolian partisan invasion; this action led to his defeat and capture two months later. He was taken prisoner by the Red Army and a month later put on trial for counter revolution in Novonikolaevsk. After a six-hour trial he was found guilty, and on 15 September 1921 he was executed.


A little known fact about the Russian aristocracy
The period of Mongol rule over Russia included significant cultural and interpersonal contacts between the Russian and Mongolian ruling classes. By 1450, the Tatar language had become fashionable in the court of the Grand Prince of Moscow, Vasily II, who was accused of excessive love of the Tatars and their speech, and many Russian noblemen adopted Tatar surnames (for example, a member of the Veliamanov family adopted the Turkic name "Aksak" and his descendants were the Aksakovs). Many Russian boyar (noble) families traced their descent from the Mongols or Tatars, including Veliaminov-Zernov, Godunov, Arseniev, Bakhmetev, Bulgakov and Chaadaev. In a survey of Russian noble families of the 17th century, over 15% of the Russian noble families had Tatar or Oriental origins.

When Muscovy conquered the tatar khanates under Ivan IV, this process continuedand many tatar princes converted to Christianity and became part of the Russian aristocracy. For example the son of last ruler of Sibir Kuchum khan, Abul Khayir in 1591 was the first of his dynasty to convert to Christianity. His conversion was followed by the conversion of his entire family who eventually assimilated into the Russian nobility. Thus although the Russian aristocracy was Slavic (and also Greek), they came from a diverse ethnic background who had over the centuries assimilated. A true embodiement of the Asian and European worlds which colided and made Russia a Eurasian nation, influenced in culture and genes by two rich continents.


Maria Nikolaevna was the third daughter of tsar Nicholas II. Even if Olga and Tatiana were called ”The Big pair” and Maria and Anastasia ”The Little pair” Maria felt little bit left out as a middle child because Anastaisa spent so much time with their little brother Alexei. Still she adored her sisters and was always the kindest of the group. This also caused that other sisters (specially bossy Anastasia) bossed around poor Maria. One time Maria stole a biscuit and her father said: ”I was always afraid of the wings growing. I am glad to see she is only a human child.” During the family’s captivity Maria was the most friendly towards their guards and even flirted with them. One of the guards, called Ivan Skorokhodov, smuggled a cake for Maria’s nineteenth birthday and two had private moments together. Because of this Skorokhodov was removed from his position and the Tsarina and Maria’ older sister Olga were really angry at her. After the family’s death there were a lot of speculation that one of the children had survived. After the grave was open in 1991, two skeletons were missing - one of Alexei and one of the daughter, mostly Maria or Anastasia. The other grave was found in 2007 ending the mystery of Romanov’s death.
1. Maria as a baby circa in 1900
2. Maria official portrait, 1906
3. Maria official portrait in 1910
4. Maria as a young adult circa 1915.
5. Maria wearing kimono style dress ca. 1915. (This is one of my favorite photos of Maria. I think Maria challenged ”puberty done right” long before Matthew Lewis.) 6 and 7. Maria as a young adult, ca. 1916
#marianikolaevna #romanovs #russia #royals #grandduchess #art #artist #history #russianrevolution #20thcentury #photography

Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna was the second daughter of tsar Nicholas II and empress Alexandra Feodrovna. She wasn’t as academic as her older sister, but she was the most elegant and aristocratic of all four sisters. Tatiana was practical and had natural talent for leadership. That’s why her sisters called her ”the Governess” and she was the one who took the charge of different situation - not Olga the eldest. During the family’s captivity Tatiana was often the one who was sent to talk with the guards if the family wanted something. Yakov Yurovsky, the command of guards, thought Tatiana was the most adult and mature of the children.
1. Tatiana as a baby in 1898
2. Tatiana’s official portrait, 1906
3. Tatiana’s official portrait, 1910
4. Tatiana wearing 8th Vosnesensky Hussars regiment unoform, 1912
5. Tatiana’s official portrait, 1914
#romanovs #art #artist #tatiananikolaevna #royals #history #russianrevolution #photography #drawing #sketch #princess #grandduchess

Olga and Tatiana Nikolaevna in their regiment’s uniform, Tsarskoe Selo 1911.
Source: Tatiana Z Flickr and otmacamera.tumblr.com

#olganikolaevna #tatiananikolaevna #romanov #romanovfamily #romanovsisters #bigpair #russia #romanovdynasty #romanovs

Origin of the Slavs, Part I
Early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the migration period and Early Middle Ages (5th-10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for Slavic nations through the states of the High Middle Ages. Ancient Roman and Greek sources refer to the Early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelled in a region of central Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, and west of the Iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Veneti derives from Latinvenus, -eris ('love, lovable, friendly'). The Slavs under name of the Antes and Sclaveni appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under emperor Justinian: Procopius Caesarea,  Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire.

Jordanes in his work Getica written in 550. describes the Veneti as a "populous nation" whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy "a great expanse of land". He describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic tribes, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a single name in the remote past; for they were both called Sporoi in olden times". Sporoi means I scatter grain. He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believe in one god, "the maker of lightning" (Perun), to whom they made sacrifice. They lived in scattered housing, and constantly changed settlement. In war, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battle axes, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only genitals covered. Their language is "barbarous" (not Greek), and the two tribes are tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline entirely to the dark type, but they are all slightly ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts


Origin of the Slavs, Part II
Jordanes described the Sclaveni having swamps and forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes. Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius (577–579) who slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars; the Daurentius declined and is reported as saying: "Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it shall always be for us.

Prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia – such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. The Slavs emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germans in the 5th and 6th centuries AD (thought to be in conjunction with the movement of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars and Bulgars) started the great migration of the Slavs, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns and their allies: westward into the country between the Oder and the Elbe-Saaleline; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present-day Austria, the Pannonian plainand the Balkans; and northward along the upper Dnieper river. It has also been suggested that some Slavs migrated with the Vandals to the Iberia and even North Africa.

Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers. Byzantine records note that Slav numbers were so great, that grass would not regrow where the Slavs had marched through. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements. This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. By the end of the 6th century, Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps regions


Origin of the Slavs, Part III
When migrations ended, the first Slavic state organizations appeared, each headed by a prince with a treasury and defense force. In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo supported the Slavs against their Avar rulers, and became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. This early Slavic polity probably did not outlive its founder and ruler, but it was the foundation for later Slavic states on its territory. The oldest of them was Carantania; others are the Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality. In this period, there were West Slavic tribes and states such as the Balaton Principality. The expansion of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin and the Germanization of Austria gradually separated the South Slavs from the West and East Slavs.

The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681, and the Slavic language Old Church Slavonic became the main and official language of the empire in 864. Bulgaria was instrumental in the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the Slavic world. Later Slavic states, which formed in the following centuries included  Kievan Rus', Second Bulgarian Empire, Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and Grand Principality of Serbia.


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