Paul VI celebrating a midnight Christmas Mass at the Sistine Chapel as per the Tridentine Latin rite which was the norm for centuries universally. In 1969, Paul VI promulgated and forcefully imposed a New Mass, the Novus Ordo Missae. From the start, this new rite was intended to have an ecumenical nature as declared by its chief architect and a well known Mason, Fr. Annibale Bugnini in 1965: 'We must strip from our Catholic prayers and from the Catholic liturgy everything which can be the shadow of a stumbling block for our separated brethren—that is, for the Protestants'. Indeed, the Novus Ordo Missae presents itself as a meal, not as a sacrifice. This is shown by its use of a table around (not an altar anymore) which the people of God gather to offer bread and wine and to communicate from rather common-place utensils under both kinds, and in the hand. For ages, Catholics received Holy Community on the tonque kneeling.