ACALA / अचलनाथ
The Immovable One
Originally the Mahayana deity Acalanātha, whose name means "immovable protector", Acala was incorporated into Vajrayana Buddhism as a servant of the Buddha. In Tangmi (Tang-era Chinese Vajrayana), his name was translated as "immovable" (不動 / Búdòng). In turn, the deity was imported into Japan as "Immovable" (不動 / Fūdō) by the priest Kūkai who was studying in China as a member of the Kentoshi mission and founded Shingon Buddhism. Scholars such as Miyeko Murase state that the origins of this Buddhist deity are in the Hindu god Shiva, particularly his attributes of destruction and reincarnation.
He evolves into a deity invoked in Buddhist rituals to "frighten gods, titans, men and destroy the strength of demons", and he slays all ghosts and evil spirits. In some Buddhist texts such as Sadhanamala, the Hindu gods Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Kandarpa (god of love) are said to be "wicked" because they cause the endless rebirths, and these gods are terrified of Acala because he carries a rope to bind them. In others, such as Mahavairocana-sutra, one dedicated to Buddha is instructed to visualize the left foot of Acala on his head during meditation, to prevent obstacles in his reaching Prajna (insights).
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