德軍的第一波攻擊——邁克爾行動——嚇傻了英國遠征軍 (British Expeditionary Force, BEF)。第一天方結束,英軍便死傷17,500人,但魯登道夫未使用馮 · 胡提爾 (Oskar von Hutier) 等人研發出的突擊兵戰術,而3月28日,德軍在阿拉斯未能突破盟軍防線。

英國與法國在政治角力上也出了些問題。英國首相羅伊德喬治 (David Lloyd George) 與 BEF 總司令黑格處得不好;黑格認為羅伊德喬治刻意不給他需要的兵力,而羅伊德喬治覺得黑格想法太死板。就在德軍看似能突破英軍防線,英法兩國同意讓法軍費迪南 · 福煦 (Ferdinand Foch) 擔任盟軍最高總司令。想必黑格對這個不是很開心,但礙於情勢緊迫也只能這樣了。


德軍接下來的行動:喬傑特、布呂赫約克及格納瑟瑙,都試圖突破這些策略性的地點,尤其努力捕捉重要的點,好讓 BEF 無法繼續作戰,但德國依然面臨人力短缺等問題,而盟軍的新士兵——甚至是4月中旬剛抵達的美軍——仍繼續上到前線來。德軍依然無法有效的突破西部戰線。


文 / 莫編

#歷史 #第一次世界大戰 #一次大戰 #皇帝會戰 #kaiserschlacht #thehistorymen #歷史青年

This week 100 years ago, the Second Battle of the Marne began.
German Quartermaster Erich Ludendorff wanted to eliminate the British Expeditionary Force in Flanders which led to the planning of a huge diversionary attack at the Marne River further to the South. He determined this would draw forces from Flanders before a renewed offensive north.
Ludendorff also intended to threaten the Paris - Verdun rail link, increasing pressure on Paris. The Germans were to use their advanced positions achieved during the earlier Spring Offensive to initiate this. From the large salient the Germans held between Soissons and Reims, the offensive with 52 divisions available began near the Marne on July 15. With some success, the Germans managed to push forward but the attack stalled on July 17 as British and American reinforcements arrived to relieve their French allies.
Ludendorff had failed in his objectives after 2 days.
French General Ferdinand Foch (who was also in command of the overall Allied forces on the Western Front) was well informed of the German attack. French aerial observations and POW’s leaked information on German plans exposed the entire operation. At this point, German radio code had also been cracked. This was to be the last German offensive on the Western Front. Tomorrow, we will see how the Allies responded to this offensive.
#ww1 #worldwar1 #worldwarone #history #war #battle #marne #france #kaiserschlacht

In preparation for the Second Battle of the Marne, a conflict that seemed to be the most imperative engagement of World War I since the battles of 1914, the French Fourth Army in the east had constructed their main lines of trenches 2-3 miles behind the actual frontline, which put the soldiers well out of range of German artillery. Between the frontlines and the main lines of trenches were two lines of strong points.

The German bombardment began at 11:30pm on July 14, 1918, despite a time originally set for 12:10am on July 15th. The bombardment struck mostly the unoccupied front line and vacant gun pits. 23 German divisions from the First and Third Armies, as well as 17 divisions from the Seventh and Ninth Armies, were poised and prepped for what was hoped to be a major blow towards Paris. The Germans entered the Allied front lines unopposed and made their way towards the first line of occupied French trenches under a creeping rain of artillery. The advanced was halted when the troops reached the main trenches, and they were ordered to rest and reorganize while field artillery in the rear was moved forward into range. The Germans renewed their attack at 8:30 that morning. Disciplined French shelling prevented them from gaining much ground, and a second attempt at an attack by the Germans at noon was also stopped.

In the west, the Sixth Army entrenched on the southern bank of the Marne endured a barrage that lasted for three hours. Stormtrooper units rushed in when the shelling ceased and began to cross the river quickly, erecting makeshift bridges at twelve locations and even attempting to cross over in canvas boats and rafts. Eight divisions of the American Expeditionary Force – 85,000 men in total – were also mixed into the defense, and the British Army’s XXII Corps soon joined arrived as well.

Heavy fighting ensued all across the front, but by July 17th the Allies had managed to stop the German advance and keep them from crossing the Marne in strength.

St. Étienne Mle 1907 machine gun crews are pictured in during the first few days of the battle.

The Kaiserschlacht – 7

Several months of fighting had left the Imperial German Army with hardly any substantial success on the Western Front by July of 1918. The great Spring Offensive which General Erich Ludendorff had committed so much effort to was stalling time and time again. Ludendorff was nonetheless still determined to draw Allied reserve forces away from the northern sector of the Western Front, and he still believed a large-scale attack through the Flanders area of Belgium was the best way to bring Germany the decisive victory over the British Expeditionary Force. In order to achieve success there, he would need to mount another large offensive elsewhere to divert Allied attention. This was the Marneschutz-Reims/Friedensturm Operation – or what would come to be known as the Second Battle of the Marne.

Ludendorff planned to have a main thrust by the First and Third Armies, under the commands of Generals Bruno von Mudra and Karl von Einem, respectively, east of the of city of Reims. A second attack by the Seventh and Ninth Armies was launched west of Reims, under the respective commands of Generals Max von Boehn and Johannes von Eben. Combined, the attack involved several hundred thousand men in 52 divisions. Scheduled to begin on July 15, 1918, it was to be Germany’s last offensive action of World War I.

French wounded are pictured here being escorted to presumably a dressing station behind the lines, c. July 1918.

If you can’t handle me at my Kaiserschlacht, then you don’t deserve me at my Operation Barbarossa.

#kaiserschlacht #operationbarbarossa

The Kaiserschlacht – 6

Seeking to expound upon the gains made at the end of May and beginning of June 1918 during the offensive which ultimately culminated as the Third Battle of the Aisne (formally Operation Blücher-Yorck), General Erich Ludendorff launched yet another offensive operation (the fourth overall) of the now three-month-old Spring Offensive. It was Operation Gneisenau, and it aimed to draw more Allied reserve south and tie together two large German salients on the Western Front, known as the Compiègne Salients.

Despite previous knowledge of the forthcoming attack, the Allied troops in the immediate area – mainly French mixed American units – were unable to stop the Germans. 21 of Ludendorff’s divisions attacked along 23 miles (37km) of the front on June 9, 1918, and within two days had advanced as much as 9 miles (14km). Allied resistance was tough, but ultimately not enough.

The French carried out a major counter-attack in the areas of both Compiègne and Courcelles-Epayelles on June 11th which took the Germans completely by surprise. Under General Charles Mangin, four divisions of the French Army supported by 150 tanks, mostly Saint-Chamonds, were involved. It halted the German advance, costing them 30,000 men, and the following day Ludendorff called off Operation Gneisenau.

German gunners manhandling a trench gun to a new position on the Somme, Spring 1918.

#germansoldiers #manhandling #trenchgun #somme #france🇫🇷 #springoffensive #1918 #kaiserschlacht #firstworldwar #history

German soldiers possibly stormtroopers, during the Spring Offensive, 1918. Also known as Kaiserschlacht or "Kaiser's Battle.

#germansoldiers #stormtroopers #springoffensive #kaiserschlacht #1918 #firstworldwar #history

German soldiers engage a british Mark IV tank with a flamethrower during the Summer Offensive of 1918.

#germansoldiers #engage #british #markivtank #flamethrower #summeroffensive #kaiserschlacht #1918 #firstworldwar #history

“Treaty of Brest-Litovsk”
Russian Empire, 1918
On March 3, 1918, what was now the Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This treaty was the final peace treaty between the central powers and what was now Soviet Russia. The treaty was humiliating for the Russians. They gave up thousands of square kilometers of territory that, within it, contained 26% of the country’s coal and over 30% of its population. However, the Soviet government saw this peace as necessary as German and Austro-Hungarian troops were racing further and further into their territory, and the sooner the peace the better for Russia.
The territory was made into independent states that became puppets of Germany and the Central powers. Many of these countries are still on the map today such as Poland, Ukraine and Finland.
This peace was very important as it freed around 1 million German troops for fighting in the West against France, Britain and now the United States as well.
This gave the German military a ‘window of opportunity ‘ to win the war quickly. They would use millions of special “storm troopers”, which were highly trained and specially equipped German soldiers, to launch an offensive on the Western front to win the war before fresh American reinforcements would arrive in the Summer of 1918.
This offensive was called the ‘kaiserschlacht’ or Kaiser’s battle, and was Germany’s last push to win the war in the Spring of 1918. The offensive was originally highly successful and the Germans advanced 40 miles closer to Paris, but it finally stalled that Summer with the arrival of US reinforcements, and the offensive was called off. Germany would be on the defensive for the rest of the war.
#ww1 #kaiser #germany #poland #ukraine #finland #hungary #austria #russia #ussr #turkey #france #usa #britian #treaty #war #empire #conquest #1918 #surrender #offensive #kaiserschlacht #invasion #global



在英法聯軍方面,從1916年到現在,英軍、法軍皆是發動攻擊的一方,對於防守戰術略為生疏。法軍在1917年發生大規模叛變,士氣普遍低落,軍紀散漫;英軍面臨嚴重人力短缺問題,而且首相大衛 · 勞合 · 喬治(David Lloyd George)與英國遠征軍總司令道格拉斯 · 海格(Douglas Haig)處得不好,加上不列顛本土的人力問題,使喬治將增援部隊留在不列顛,西部戰線的英軍更加薄弱。除此之外,將領素質也削弱了聯軍戰力。

德國參謀總長保羅 · 馮 · 興登堡(Paul von Hindenburg)與軍需總長埃里希 · 魯登道夫(Erich Ludendorff)日以繼夜的規劃這次可能使法國投降的大規模攻勢。03月21日,英軍迎接第一波攻擊時,幾乎無法招架。

文 / 莫編

#皇帝會戰 #第一次世界大戰 #一次大戰 #一戰 #ww1 #wwi #firstworldwar #kaiserschlacht #歷史青年 #thehistorymen

🇬🇧Kaiserschlacht (March 21, 1918- August 5, 1918)
The Kaiserschlacht (also called Spring offensive) was a series of germans assaults on the Western Front focused to break trough enemy lines and reach Paris.
The Germans, led by Luddendorf and Paul von Hindenburg, suffered 688.341 casualties meanwhile the Allies suffered 851.374 casualties.
The German general staff planned 5 offensive: the first was Operation Michael. The offensive started with a violent bombardment on the enemy trenches instantly followed by the german Stoßtrupp that destroyed the Allied resistance. 160.000 british troops were knocked out, in total. But a few days later the offensive was stopped. 🇮🇹Kaiserschlacht ( 21 Marzo 1918- 5 Agosto 1918)
La Kaiserschlacht (anche chiamata offensiva di primavera) fu una serie di assalti tedeschi sul Fronte Occidentale volti a rompere le linee nemiche e a raggiungere Parigi. I tedeschi guidati da Luddendorf e Paul von Hindenburg persero 688.341 uomini mentre gli Alleati 851.374.
Il comando generale tedesco pianificò 5 offensive: la prima fu l'operazione Michael. L'offensiva cominciò con un violento bombardamento sulle trincee nemiche seguito instantaneamente dagli Stoßtrupp tedeschi che distrussero la resistenza alleata. In totale 160.000 truppe alleate vennero messe fuori combattimento. Ma pochi giorni dopo l'offensiva fu fermata. «»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«» #Kaiserschlacht #Compiegne #Aisne #Offensive #ww1 #Hindenburg #Luddendorf #history #war #Stosstruppen #historythroughtheages #Bombardment #Lys {}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}{}
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