Japanese has a set of words based on the physical distance between the speaker and the listener. They are called "ko-so-a-do" words because the first syllable is either a ko-, so-, a-, or do-.
"Ko-words" refer to things near to the speaker, "So-words" to things near to the listener, "A-words" to things that are at distance from both the speaker and the listener, and "Do-words" are questions words. . “Kore”, “sore”, and “are” are demonstrative pronouns:
これ (kore) – “this”, refers to an object near to the speaker.
それ (sore) – “that”, refers to an object near to the listener.
あれ (are) – “that over there”, refers to an object far from both the speaker and the listener.
これは猫です。(kore wa neko desu) – This is a cat.
それは車です。(sore wa kuruma desu) - That is a car.
あれは本です。(are wa hon desu) – That over there is a book.
The last word, “dore?” (which one?), is a question word and it’s usually used when there are 3 or more options from which to choose from.
どれが好きですか? (dore ga suki desuka) - (Which one do you like?)
“Kono”, “sono”, “ano”, and “dono” are demonstrative adjectives and they cannot be used on its own. This group can only occur together with a noun. So the formats are always:
この + Noun (kono + Noun) – this [something]
その + Noun (sono + Noun) - that [something]
あの + Noun (ano + Noun) – that [something] over there
どの + Noun (dono + Noun) – which [something]
この猫は小さいです。(kono neko wa chiisai desu) – This cat is small.
その車は赤いです。(sono kuruma wa akai desu) – That car is red.
あの本は面白いです。(ano hon wa omoshiroi desu) – That book over there is interesting.
どの飲み物が好きですか？ (dono nomimono ga suki desuka?) - Which drink do you like?