Kingdom of Jerusalem
The #Latin #Kingdom of #Jerusalem was a #crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First #Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, #Acre, was destroyed by the #Mamluks, but its #history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by #Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into #Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of #French origin.
The Jerusalem #cross (also known as "Five-fold Cross", or "cross-and-crosslets") is a #heraldic cross and #Christian cross variant consisting of a large cross potent surrounded by four smaller #Greek #crosses, one in each quadrant. It was used as the emblem and #coatofarms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from the 1280s