The Battle of Emesa, 271 AD
"Finding the Palmyrene army drawn up before Emesa, numbering 70,000 men, consisting of Palmyrene's and their allies, he [The Roman emperor Aurelian] arrayed against them the Dalmatian cavalry, the Moesians and Pannonians, and the Gothic Legions [What exactly Zosimus means is unclear; there certainly weren't that many Goths in the Legions as to completely fill them] of Noricum and Raetia, and beside these the Praetorians, chosen by merit from all and the most distinguished, the Mauritanian horse, and from Asia came contingents of Tyaneans, as well as Mesopotamians, Syrians, Phoenicians and Palestinians, all known for their bravery. The Palestinians wielded clubs and staves, beside other weapons. At the commencement of the engagement, the Roman cavalry made a partial withdrawal, in case the Palmyrene's, who outnumbered them, and were better horsemen, should surround the Roman army unawares. But the Palmyrene cavalry pursued them so fiercely, though their ranks were broken, that the outcome was quite contrary to the expectation of the Roman cavalry. For they were pursued by an enemy much their superior in strength, and therefore most of them fell. The infantry had to bear the brunt of the action. Observing that the Palmyrenes had broken their ranks when the cavalry commenced their pursuit, they wheeled about, and attacked them while they were scattered and in disarray. An immense slaughter ensued, because while some fought with their usual weapons, those of Palestine brought clubs and staves against coats of mail made of iron and brass. This was perhaps a contributory factor to the victory, as the enemies were paralyzed by the unexpectedness of being attacked by staves. The Palmyrenes therefore ran away with the utmost haste, and in their flight trod each other to pieces and were slaughtered by the enemy. The field was filled with dead men and horses, whilst those who could escape took refuge in the city [Emesa]."
~ Zosimus, 1.52-53
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