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In the twelfth century the 'Neill clan divided once more. Aedh (Hugh) Macaemh Toinleasg (the 'Lazy-arsed Youth') O'Neill, King of Cenel Eoghain 1176-1177, Royal Heir of Ireland, slew his father's slayer, 1160; restored O'Neill power after his inauguration at Tullyhogue; established his rule over all Tir Eoghain (Tyrone) and became supreme in the north of Ireland.
Amongst other issue he had two sons:
AEDH Meth 'the Fat' O'Neill, King of Northern Ireland, ancestor of the O'Neills of Clannabuidhe (Clanaboy) and, in the female line, of The Hon. The Lord O'Neill (Shane's Castle), the late Lord O'Neill of the Maine (formerly Captain Terence O'Neill, formerly Prime Minister of Northern Ireland) and The Hon. Hugh O'Neill (Chairman, Northern Ireland Tourist Board). �Niall Ruadh 'the Red' O'NEILL, KING OF ULSTER 1230, had (with other issue) a son BRIAN O'NEILL, LAST NATIVE KING OF IRELAND 1258-1260.
King Niall's descendants were styled Ua Neill Mor (The Great O'Neill) to distinguish them from their rivals of the Clannabuidhe (Clanaboy) branch whose Chief was styled The O'Neill Buidhe, or The O'Neill of Clannabuidhe.
This Niall was the direct ancestor of the Great Red Hugh O'Neill, the last King of Ulster, inaugurated on the royal stone at Tullyhogue in 1594.
When this main line of the clan died out, the O'Neills of the Fews became their successors.
ART O'Neill, King of Ulster 1509-1514, was assisted in holding his appanage of the Fews against the English by 'his cousin king Conn Mor O'Neill' in 1487. His grandson Henry O'Neill, Lord of the Fews was living in 1563; he married Joan, widow of Ferdorcha O'Neill, 1st Baron of Dungannon, and mother of the Great Red Hugh (above), daughter of Cuconnaght Maguire, dynast of Fermanagh and by her had a son Turlough (or Terence) O'Neill, Lord of the Fews.
Turlough was succeeded by his son Henry of the Fews who left issue (with a younger son Shane (or John), father of Thomas 'Johnson" (John's son) from whom the Johnson baronets of New York claim descent). It is from this issue that Don Carlos, the present O'Neill Mor - Chief of his Name descends.