Low #Choline Intake Associated W/ 83% and 96% Increased Risk of Low #Bone Density in Middle-Aged #Men and Elderly #Women.
Choline is also essential for #heart and #liver - Learn more suppversity.blogspot.com/2014/04/choline-deficiency-its-consequences-and.html
Study subjects were participants in the Hordaland Health Study, including 2649 women and 1983 men (aged 46–49 or 71–74 y). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and dietary intake was obtained by using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. Risk associations were assessed by logistic regression and correlations by ρ (Spearman’s bivariate rank order correlation). Subjects in the lowest compared with the highest tertile of dietary total choline, free choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin had a higher risk of low–femoral neck BMD, defined as the lowest BMD quintile. Particularly strong associations were found among middle-aged men for intake of free choline (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.69; P = 0.002) and glycerophosphocholine (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.43, 3.16; P < 0.001) and among elderly women for total choline (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.88; P = 0.001) and phosphatidylcholine (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.84: P = 0.001) intake. No significant associations were observed between dietary betaine and BMD. Dietary total choline, free choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin correlated weakly with plasma free choline (ρ: 0.07, 0.05, 0.07, 0.07, and 0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). Dietary betaine correlated with plasma betaine (ρ: 0.23; P < 0.001). suppversity.com | Oyen, et al. "Dietary Choline Intake Is Directly Associated with Bone Mineral Density in the Hordaland Health Study." First published March 8, 2017, doi: 10.3945/jn.116.243006.