Parthian Civil War 222-224ac:
Parthians: When the Roman emperor Comodus was assassinated, the Parthian empire started a series of wars from 193-218, with Rome with the hope to exploit the instability of Rome. However it backfired, and the Roman generals were able to take all of Mesopotamia and Babylon, although not for long. At the end the Parthians won the war, but they suffered heavy losses and overtaxed their subject kingdoms.
Sassanids: The governor of Pars, Papak I, took advantage that the Parthians were busy fighting the Romans, and took control of Pars and allied himself with many local princes unsatisfied with Parthian rule. He successfully took control of the Persian Gulf, and declared his son Shapur heir of the kingdom.
STRUGGLE FOR POWER: After the death of Papak in 222, his two sons Shapur and Ardashir fought for the throne. Fortunately for Ardashir, Shapur died when a rooftop fell over him. Ardashir then killed the rest of his brothers and declared independence from the Parthians.
THE WAR: Ardashir in order to consolidate his power, moved his capital into the city of Gur and allied himself with the governor of Adiabene. The Parthian emperor Artabanus, ordered the ruler of Susa to invade Pars while Ardashir was invading the satrap of Spahan. However, Ardashir took Spahan and then defeated the forces of Susa and killing its king. Afterwards, he conquered most of south Iran and the entirety of Babylon. Finally, Artabanus decided to take the matter into his own hands, and fought Ardashir in the Battle of Hormozdgan.
BATTLE OF HORMOZGAN: In 224, Ardashir placed his forces in a favorable terrain and cut the water supplies of the Parthian. Artabanus then send all his cavalry against the Sassanian one. On the middle of the Battle, a group of Parthian princes defected to Ardashir, which allowed the Sassanians to surround the Parthians. The Battle ended when Ardashir killed Artabanus in hand to hand combat. After the battle the Parthian empire was dissolved and from its ashes the Sassanid Empire was born.
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