Finishing materials: primers
The primer helps the paint or wallpaper to adhere to the wall and covers defects, for example, it levels the porous surface. Primers are made on the basis of natural and synthetic substances, for example, linseed oil, alkyd, urea formaldehyde, epoxy resins, there are many types, but I will tell you about those that are mainly used for concrete and plaster walls.
The base primer can be mineral and acrylic. The first ones are made on the basis of minerals, their composition is: gypsum/ cement/lime + solvents (most often water) + stabilizers + pigmenting substances. The basis of acrylic are acrylic polymers, this type of primers is considered to be universal, as they are suitable for any surfaces except metal, they fit perfectly, make the base more durable, improve adhesion of surfaces and dry quickly. Their ingredients are water + pigment additives + excipients (mica, marble chips) + binders that increase the plasticity (resins, boiled linseed oil) + additives that accelerate the drying process. Acrylic primers practically do not smell, because they do not contain solvents. There are also alkyd primers, but they dry for a long time, the paint can peel off if it has not dried completely, contain toxic white spirit, do not penetrate deep into the surface.
There may be different signs on materials, for example, that a product won an eco reward, but remember that this is still not the ecolabel from the certified organizations that you go after.
Fillers are needed for leveling surfaces. Like primers, fillers are classified according to the type of binder to cement, plaster and polymer. Cement fillers are resistant to moisture, but microcracks can form on them. Plaster fillers does not withstand changes in temperature and humidity, they are not suitable for a bathroom. Polymer fillers are superior to previous ones in properties: they provide high adhesion to paint, they do not crack, they seal plasterboard seams perfectly, provide a smooth surface. They are safe for health, but there is a minus - polymer fillers are much more expensive.
Photo credit: Yoanne Siloine
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