Hawaii part 5:
Kaiten (回天, literal translation: "Return to Heaven", commonly rendered as "turn of the Heaven's will", "the heaven shaker") were manned torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.
The very first Kaiten was nothing much more than a Type 93 torpedo engine compartment attached to a cylinder that would become the pilot's compartment with trimming ballast in place of the warhead and other electronicsand hydraulics. The torpedo's pneumaticgyroscope was replaced by an electric model and controls were installed which gave the pilot full control of the weapon.
The original designers and testers of this new weapon were Lieutenant Hiroshi Kuroki and Lieutenant Sekio Nishina. They were both to die at the controls of Kaiten, Lieutenant Kuroki in a very early training prototype.
Kaiten pilots were all men aged between 17 and 28. Initial training consisted of sailing fast surface boats by periscope and instrument readings alone. When a pilot had advanced past this basic training, he would begin training on Kaitens. Training craft were fitted with a dummy warhead that contained telemetry equipment and an emergency blowing tank that could return the craft to the surface should the trainee dive to a dangerous depth.
When compared with the Type 93 torpedo which was surface-vessel–launched, Kaiten had the obvious advantages of having a pilot to guide the weapon, and of being launched from a submerged submarine. Despite these advantages, however, they were not nearly as effective on a one-for-one basis as the highly successful Type 93 torpedo on which they were based. United States sources claim that the only sinkings achieved by Kaiten attacks were the fleet oiler USS Mississinewaanchored at Ulithi on 20 November 1944, with the loss of 63 men; a small infantry landing craft (LCI-600), with the loss of three men; and the destroyer escort USS Underhill while operating northeast of Cape Engaño on 24 July 1945, with the loss of 113 men.
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Source info: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaiten