Освободительный поход Красной Армии 1939 год. Вермахт передает Брестскую крепость частям Красной Армии --------------------------------------------------- The change of the garrison of city of Brest • During the German invasion of Poland in 1939 the city was defended by a small garrison of four infantry battalions under General Konstanty Plisowski against the XIX Panzer Corps of General Heinz Guderian. After four days of heavy fighting the Polish forces withdrew southwards on September 17 (Battle of Brześć Litewski). The Red Army entered the city on 17th September 1939 after the Polish government fled the country, leaving Poland and her people helpless and alone. The Soviet government justified the campaign of the Red Army as a liberation Belorussian and Ukrainian civilians from polish oppression. Most Belarusians consider it a reunification of the Belarusian nation under one constituency (BSSR at that time).
The city had a significant Jewish population: 30,000 out of 45,000 total population according to Russian 1897 census, which have fallen to 21,000 out of 50,000 according to the Polish 1931 census.
On June 22, 1941 the Brest fortress and the city was attacked by Nazi Germany at the beginning of the surprise war, codenamed Operation Barbarossa, but held out for six weeks. Nearly all the defenders perished. Brest's Jewish community was decimated under Nazi rule in 1942. The city was liberated by the Red Army on July 28, 1944 • Background. In 1918 the city was declared part of the short-lived Belarusian Democratic Republic. The newly reconstituted Poland took control of Brest in 1919. The city changed hands twice during the Polish-Soviet War and eventually stayed inside Polish borders, a development that was formally recognized by the Treaty of Riga in 1921. In the fortress, heavily damaged during World War I, Polish Army troops with the headquarters of the 9th Military District were stationed, and the city itself became a capital of Polesie Voivodeship. In 1930 Wincenty Witos and some other prominent Polish statesmen were detained here before the notorious trial in Warsaw • To be continued below 👇🏼