The maze project: bipolar disorder❤️
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present. During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable. Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep isusually reduced during manic phases. During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40 percent.
The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental and genetic factors play a role. Many genes of small effect contribute to risk. Environmental risk factors include a history of childhood abuse, andlong-term stress. About 85% of the risk is attributed to genetics.
Treatment commonly includes psychotherapy as well as medications such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Involuntary treatment in a hospital may be needed if a person is a risk to themselves or others but refuses treatment. Severe behavioral problems, such as agitation or combativeness, may be managed with short term antipsychotics or benzodiazepines.
Many individuals have financial, social or work-related problems due tothe illness. These difficulties occur a quarter to a third of the time, on average. The risk of death from natural causes such as heart disease is twice that of the general population. This is due to poor lifestyle choices and the side effects from medications.
BPD affects approximately 1% of the global population. In the United States, about 3% are estimated to be affected at some point in their life. The most common age at which symptoms begin is 25. Rates appear to be similar in females andmales. People with BPD often face problems with social stigma.
Attempts at prevention of BPD have mainly focused on stress.