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SIMON NORFOLK  … A photographer whose work over the past fifteen years has been themed around a probing and stretching of the meaning of the word ‘battlefield’...

http://www.simonnorfolk.com/

Photograph by @simonnorfolkstudio

During this week (October 12th-16th) in 1971 the then Shah of Iran hosted days of festivities to mark 2500 years of the Persian Empire (Persian: ‫جشن‌های ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران‬‎‎). The celebration was to demonstrate the country’s ancient civilization and showcase its contemporary advancements. These events centred around the archaeological sites of Persepolis and Pasargadae and have been dubbed the most expensive and lavish party in history.

Another image of Persepolis taken in 2008 whilst on assignment for National Geographic Magazine.
Darius I built the greatest palace at Persepolis on the western side of platform. This palace was called the Apadana.[26] The King of Kings used it for official audiences. The work began in 518 BCE, and his son, Xerxes I, completed it 30 years later. The palace had a grand hall in the shape of a square, each side 60m (200ft) long with seventy-two columns, thirteen of which still stand on the enormous platform. Each column is 19m (62ft) high with a square Taurus (bull) and plinth. The columns carried the weight of the vast and heavy ceiling. The tops of the columns were made from animal sculptures such as two-headed lions, eagles, human and Cows, Because cows are symbols of fertility and abundance in ancient Iran .
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During this week (October 12th-16th) in 1971 the then Shah of Iran hosted days of festivities to mark 2500 years of the Persian Empire (Persian: ‫جشن‌های ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران‬‎‎). The celebration was to demonstrate the country’s ancient civilization and showcase its contemporary advancements. These events centred around the archaeological sites of Persepolis and Pasargadae and have been dubbed the most expensive and lavish party in history.
Another image of Persepolis taken in 2008 whilst on assignment for National Geographic Magazine. Persepolis was built by Darius the Great in 515 BCE as a palace complex for the celebration of Nowruz (Persian New Year) and the focus for imperial tribute. It was the ceremonial centre of the Persia’s Achaemenid Empire for 200 years. In 330BCE Alexander the Great burned it to the ground, possibly by accident, possibly as deliberate revenge for the Persian destruction of the Acropolis in 480 BCE.

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#documentaryphotography #simonnorfolk #archaeology #iran #Persian #Persianempire #Persepolis #shah #Achaemenid #Achaemenidempire #history #heritage #worldheritage #worldheritagesite #shiraz #fars # #party #worldparty #simonnorfolkstudio #documentary #igtravel #visualarchitects @simonnorfolkstudio #lighting #dusk #dariusthegreat #darius

During this week (October 12th-16th) in 1971 the then Shah of Iran hosted days of festivities to mark 2500 years of the Persian Empire (Persian: ‫جشن‌های ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران‬‎‎). The celebration was to demonstrate the country's ancient civilization and showcase its contemporary advancements. These events centred around the archaeological sites of Persepolis and Pasargadae and have been dubbed the most expensive and lavish party in history.
Here, photographed on my second assignment for National Geographic Magazine in 2008, Naqsh-e Rustam is the Acropolis of the great Persian kings of the 5th and 4th century BCE with the high tombs of Darius II, Ataxerxes I and Xerxes I. The site is near the ruined city of Persepolis, not far from Shiraz in western Iran.
In the foreground is the mysterious Ka’be-ye Zartosht which has been thought to be either a tomb, a sacred library or possibly a chamber for the keeping of holy fire.
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On this day (October 12th-) in 1971 the then Shah of Iran opened days of festivities to mark 2500 years of the Persian Empire (Persian: ‫جشن‌های ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران‬‎‎). The celebration was to demonstrate the country's ancient civilization and showcase its contemporary advancements. These events centred around the archaeological sites of Persepolis and Pasargadae and have been dubbed the most expensive and lavish party in history.

I took this image at Persepolis in 2008 whilst on assignment for National Geographic Magazine.

The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. The uneven plan of the terrace, including the foundation, acted like a castle, whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front. The complex had three walls with ramparts,each with towers providing a protected space for defence personnel. The first wall was 7m (23ft) high, the second, 14m (46ft) and the third wall, which covered all four sides, was 27 metres (89ft) in height.
No presence of the wall exists in modern times.
UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979

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I'm happy to be involved in Art on a Postcard, which raises money for The Hepatitis C Trust through an annual secret postcard auction and ‘postcard lotteries’. This image of mine from the Kamchatka Peninsula is in the mix this year.

Buy your lottery ticket from @artonapostcard https://tinyurl.com/y8s8ynet

Koryaksky volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. In 2008 Koryaksky erupted with a 6,000m plume of ash, the first major eruption in 3,500 years. This photograph is from a selection of work commissioned by Patek Philippe Magazine through @bookmarkcontent

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On this day (October 5th) 1914 French pilot Louis Quenault opened fire on a German aircraft, marking the dawn of air combat.
I've been working for over a year now on a project about the aftermath of the First World War. The war was the first major conflict involving the large-scale use of aircraft. Although aircraft then were
limited and the bombs and their stowage elementary, strategic and tactical bombing
date from the earliest days of the war.
Here a photograph of a targeting range complete with retired merchant ship at DIO (Defence Infrastructure Organisation) Holbeach, an Air Weapons Range in Lincolnshire, England. Use of the range began in the 1920s, with biplanes firing and dropping bombs over the area. Observation towers parallel to the target line are manned and allow the fall of aircraft ordnance to be calculated for accuracy by means of triangulation.

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material.
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Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem.
Photographed for an upcoming story for National Geographic Magazine.

The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as "Calvary" or "Golgotha", and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is said to have been buried and resurrected. The tomb is enclosed by the 18th-century shrine, called the Edicule. The Status Quo, a 250-year old understanding between religious communities, applies to the site.

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Photographed on assignment for an upcoming story for National Geographic Magazine.

The Deir Es-Sultan monastery was built on part of the main church roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem more than 1,000 years ago. The modest collection of small rooms has been occupied by monks from the Ethiopian Orthodox Church since 1808. Ownership of the monastery, however, is hotly disputed between the Ethiopians and the Egyptian Coptic Church.
Ethiopians speak the ancient Semitic language of Amharic. They worship in the even more ancient dead language of Ge’ez. As well as Sunday, Saturday is a holy day, and in each church the Ark of the Covenant is revered. Indeed Axum cathedral is said to house the Ark once kept in the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple. The Ethiopians are not well off. Once, they had a chapel inside the church of the Holy Sepulchre. They lost that centuries ago during the long Ottoman rule of Jerusalem, when political influence and payment of taxes counted for much.

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Photographed on assignment for an upcoming story for National Geographic Magazine.

Ethiopians on the roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, on Thursday before Easter. At present, the most serious discord in the Holy Sepulchre is between the Ethiopians and their long-time antagonists, the Copts of Egypt. Though the two ancient African churches share a similar dogma, for the last three centuries they have been feuding over the Chapel of St. Michael leading from the parvis (the entrance courtyard) to the roof of the basilica. Initially the Ethiopians controlled the modest chapel, measuring about eight by 11 metres. Unable to pay their Ottoman taxes, the Ethiopians sold the shrine to the Copts in the 17th century. But unwilling to abandon their claim, the Ethiopians built a tiny village atop the church in a space which may have ben a Crusader-era dining room. The monastery (which in their faith includes men and women) is called the House of Sultan Suleiman in honour of the marriage of King Solomon to the Queen of Sheba, a union which they believe led to the founding of their nation 3,000 years ago. Although the Ethiopian monks have lived there for more than 200 years, the Copts are in overall control of the monastery. The Ethiopians represent the first Christian country in Africa. This Church, with its Alexandrian origins, is distinguished by its having preserved Old Testament customs such as circumcision and the Levitical laws governing food and ritual purity, and celebrations in the ancient Ge’ez language. At Easter many Ethiopian men and women come to Jerusalem, cloaked in white stoles.

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I’ve been working for a year now on a larger project about the aftermath of the First World War. Stumbled across these munitions whilst photographing in a field in the Somme.

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Photographed whilst on assignment for an upcoming story for National Geographic Magazine.
Mosaics at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem: The Doubting of Thomas.
The Church of Nativity in Bethlehem is the only major church in the Holy Land that survives intact from the early Christian period. The Church of the Nativity was originally commissioned in 327 by Roman emperor Constantine and his mother Helena over the cave that is still traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. The present church was built by the Emperor Justinian after the destruction of the Samaritan Revolt of 529 CE. In 614, the church had a narrow escape. A Sassanian army from Persia had invaded the Holy Land and proceeded to destroy all the churches. However, they desisted at Bethlehem because they recognised the images of their ancestors, the Magi, above the entrance to the Church.
The site is currently under restoration within an international project managed by the Palestinians through the Project Client "The Palestinian Presidential Committee for the Restoration of the Nativity Church". Work on the mosaics is part of an estimated $19 million makeover -the building hadn't undergone major repairs since 1479. Of the 2,000 meters of original mosaics, only 150 meters squared remains. Mosaics created 155-1169CE
The artist, Basilius, signed his name in Latin and Syriac — using tesserae. Basilius did the technical work, Aram was was the artist.

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Photographed on assignment for an upcoming story for National Geographic Magazine.

Scenes along the Via Dolorosa on Good Friday 2017. Estimates are that there were 50,000 pilgrims in Jerusalem over the Easter weekend which saw a rare combination of Jewish Passover and Orthodox and Catholic Easters all at the same time. Many of the Christian groups were carrying national flags such as Eritreans and Serbians. Through it all was a massive security presence from the many different branches of the Israeli police and military.

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