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During Katherine Howard's trial for adultery, the council that was tasked with determining her fate began to suspect that the queen may have had an affair with her cousin, Thomas Culpepper. After a member of Katherine's household confirmed she had noticed "love between them," and that Katherine had once spent 5-6 hours alone with Culpepper in a closet, the council wasted no time in searching Culpepper's belongings. They discovered a letter signed by the queen and with poor spelling, as the queen was barely literate.
Here is an excerpt from that incriminating letter: "Master Culpepper,
I heartily recommend me unto you, praying you send to me word how that you do. I did hear that ye were sick, and I never longed for anything so much as to see you. It maketh my heart to die when I do think that I cannot always be in your company... And I would you were with me now, that you see what pain I take in writing to you.
Yours as long as life endures,

Both Katherine and Culpepper were beheaded for treason. #TudorTuesday #RoyalHistoriesTudorTuesday

On October 25, 1415, French and English forces fought the Battle of Agincourt, a famous English victory during the Hundred Years War.
Two months earlier, Henry V of England crossed the English Channel with over 10,000 men. He enforced a siege on Harfleur in Normandy. The town surrendered after 5 weeks, but by then Henry had lost half of his men to disease and battle. He proceeded to march his army to Calais, from where he would return to England. However in Agincourt there stood an army of 20,000 Frenchmen, waiting to fight the exhausted Englishmen.
The battle commenced at 11 A.M. on October 25. The French knights, weighed down by heavy armor, were bombarded by English archers, wielding their innovative longbows. 6000 Frenchmen lost their lives, compared to the English death toll of just 400. From that day forward Henry V's fame lie in winning one of the great military victories in history. After further successes in France, he was named heir to the French throne in 1420, but died before he could inherit it.

On October 25, 1774, the First Continental Congress sent a petition to George III, informing the king that if it weren't for the British Parliament's enforcing of oppressive acts on the Americans, they would still be standing behind British rule.
The congress stated it was still willing to show loyalty to the British, so long as the king addressed and acted upon the grievances laid forth by the colonies. Their grievances were mostly centered on the Coercive Acts, four acts that Parliament passed to punish colonists after the Boston Tea Party.
George III did not respond to the congress' satisfaction. Eight months later on July 6, 1775 the Second Continental Congress adopted John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson's "Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms." The resolution detailed the reasons that justified the colonists taking up arms and leading a revolution against the British Crown.

Claudius, the fourth emperor of Rome, led an especially unlucky love life. His first betrothal was broken after the girl's parents fell into political disgrace, and his second bride fell ill and died on their wedding day.
From there he entered four marriages, each more troubled than the one. Store it. His first marriage was ended for suspicions of adultery and murder and the second called off for political reasons. His third wife, Messalina, was described by contemporary sources as a scheming nymphomaniac. Messalina and one of her lovers were executed after they performed a mock marriage ceremony, giving Claudius reason to suspect they planned to murder him. He vowed to never marry again. This vow was broken just a year later when he married his niece, Agrippina. She manipulated him into naming her son Nero as his successor before orchestrating his assassination.
📸: Picture shows Claudius being proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian guard.
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Empress Carlota of Mexico was born Charlotte of Belgium in 1840. The future empress married Maximilian, archduke of Austria, in 1857. At the onset of their union the pair were attracted to each other and Charlotte was described as a devoted wife. However, after time spent in Brazil, Maximilian contracted a venereal disease that rendered them childless and led to Charlotte insisting on separate bedrooms.
Charlotte convinced her husband to accept the position of Emperor of Mexico after it was offered to him in the early 1860s. In 1864, Charlotte—now known as Carlota—and Maximilian arrived to their imperial thrones in Mexico. Many obstacles stood in their path—Maximilian was too liberal for conservative Mexicans, he lost the papal nuncio when he declared freedom of religion, and the United States backed Maximilian's opposition. Eventually, Napoleon withdrew his troops and support, and Maximilian was arrested by Mexican forces.
Carlota returned to Europe and begged for support for Maximilian. When she visited the Pope, her behavior was so upsetting that the Pope permitted her to stay the night in the Vatican, a privilege unheard of for a woman. In 1867 Maximilian was executed by a firing squad. Carlota spent the last sixty years of her life in poor mental health and seclusion, dying of pneumonia in 1927.

Ulrika Eleanora (1668-1741) was the sister of the unmarried King Charles XII of Sweden. After her elder sister's death Ulrika became heir to the throne. In 1715 she married Frederick of Hessen-Kassel and let her ambitions become subordinate to his. In 1720, after having been queen for 2 years, Ulrika abdicated in favor of her husband. Ulrika had hoped she and her husband could share a joint rule in Sweden, as William and Mary had in England, but this desire was denied by the Swedish government.
As early as 1718, the couple became exposed to anti-absolutist forces. Thus when Frederick became king in 1720 he gave up substantial powers to Parliament, leading to the Swedish Age of Freedom.

"The Man in the Iron Mask" is one of Europe's most popular royal mysteries. This mysterious man was imprisoned in 1687, and brought to Paris 11 years later to be kept under close guard in the Bastille. He ate, slept, and eventually died in 1703 still wearing his mask. Two musketeers stood close by in his prison cell to kill him if he removed his mask. This secrecy lent itself to a number of conspiracy theories that took shape in the following century.
Voltaire speculated 50 years later that the Man in the Iron Mask resembled Louis XIV of France, which led to a far-fetched theory that this man was Louis's twin, kept confined in order to secure the king's position. Other theories suggest he was a failed assassin, debauched nobleman, the playwright Molière, or an Italian nobleman.

King Ferdinand VI is one of many Spanish monarchs that suffered from mental illness, a result of centuries of inbreeding within the royal family. His wife, Barbara of Portugal, was a comfort to him before her death.
The king went about in fear of sudden death and often suffered rages that would drive him to bang his head against the wall. Between episodes of insanity, the king was known to be quite pleasant. This ended in 1758 when his adored Queen Barbara died. When it was suggested he remarry he flew into a frenzy, refusing to wash, shave, or dress. He tended to attack members of his court (usually with his own excrement) and refused all food.
Attempts at suicide became frequent. Ferdinand asked for poison, was refused, and proceeded to try to stab himself with scissors or make a rope to hang himself with out of napkins and curtains. He died in 1759, age 46, during a fit of convulsions.

King John of England is among the villains of royal history. During his reign, John was not above sexual blackmail. The king often seduced the wives, daughters, and sisters of noblemen and then demanded money to keep the affairs quiet. Families would be forced to pay up, for otherwise the dignity of their families were at stake.

In the last years of his life Edward III of England spent many hours alone in his chambers, refusing to see his family or household. In this time he fell into the clutches of Alice Perrers, his mistress, the mother of at least 2 of his illegitimate children, and a woman 36 years his junior.
The pair first met when she was maid of the bedchamber to Queen Philippa of Hainault. The queen died in 1369, and in the years that followed Alice was given manors, money, and the dead queen's jewels. Contemporary gossip named her a witch, claiming she'd produced wax images of Edward to keep him in her power. In 1376, Parliament tried to get rid of her but the king simply dismissed the sentence passed on her.
When Edward III died on June 21, 1377, Perrers was at his side. It's said that in his dying moments she removed the rings on his fingers for herself.

In November of 1558, Londoners celebrated the passing of a woman they regarded as a tyrant—Mary I. As they rejoiced, the lords of the English Privy Council travelled to Hatfield in Hertfordshire, England where the "Lady Elizabeth" resided. Around noon the princess-turned-bastard was found seated beneath an old oak tree, reading a book. While courtiers in London had been expecting Mary's imminent death, Elizabeth was left speechless as the Privy Council knelt before her as their queen.
In Latin she declared, "This is the Lord's doing: it is marvelous in our eyes." She immediately became a focus for English nationalism, being "the most English woman in England" as both her parents were fully English. Through the 18th and 19th she organized her administration and on the 20th most of the peerage arrived to hear her first speech. That day her first appointment was announced—William Cecil as Secretary of State. In 1558, Cecil believed, like most men, that women were unfit to govern and from those days in November to the end of their lives Elizabeth made a point to prove him wrong.

Boudicca was a Celtic queen of the Iceni tribe in modern day Great Britain. Her husband Prasutagus was an independent ally of Rome and leader of the Iceni tribe. When Prasutagus died the Romans saw an opportunity and took over his lands. Boudicca protested on behalf of the Britons and was punished—supposedly she was flogged and her daughters raped.

She responded by leading a historic revolt against Roman control—which was resented in this region—and left the Roman cities of Camulodunum, Londonium (London), and Verulamium in ruins with 80,000 Roman citizens of Britain dead. In battle she was described as riding a chariot among her soldiers, with her daughters ahead of her, shouting encouragement.

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