palaeolexicon palaeolexicon

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www.palaeolexicon.com  Focusing on historical linguistics and archaeology. This project offers you a window to the past of humankind! Most shots (with exceptions) are ours.

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🔉The #Kaška were a group of semi-nomadic clans or tribes who lived in the northern region of the #Pontic mountains bordering on the Black Sea. They constituted the greatest threat to the powerful Hittite empire. No superpower of the bronze age, could match the damage the #Kaškians inflicted to the Hittites. It is argued whether they were responsible for destroying the empire. They were very mobile, without a centre of power, moving their cities or resettling them after a Hittite attack. In the period of reign of Tudhalya II, a Kaska invasion ended in the sacking of the #Hittite capital Hattusa. The Kaska presence in #Anatolia continued efter the fall of the empire, with the last record of their name appearing in the #Luwian tablets of Tabal (ca. 730BC).
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The origin of the Kaška people and their language is unknown. We have no written records from them, except of some surviving names of people and places recorded by the Hittites. Some examples of those are: Tiliura, Gazziura, Urauna, Kamana, Timuhala, Kaskilussa, Pittaggatali, Pittapara etc. The place names ending in -ura are suspected to be of Hattian origin or a language related to it. In fact the Kaška could be exiles who moved north after the burning of Ḫattuša by the Hittite king Anittaš ~1700 BCE. Another reason to believe that the north was a #Hattian linguistic zone is the Hattic substrate in the Indo-European language of Pala.
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We're going to give some insight on the remains of the #Kaškian language in the near future.
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The scenes in the video are taken from the documentaries "Hittites" (2003) and "Anadolu'nun Kayıp Şarkıları" (2009).
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Music: ??? Some Pontic music from a live performance.
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#history #archaeology #archaeologist #historicallinguistics #linguistics #palaeography #ancientanatolia #ancient #ancientworld #blacksea #karadeniz #pontos #πόντος

#Romulus was the legendary founder and first King of the city of #Rome. Romulus and #Remus were sons of Mars and a Vestal virgin, Rhea Silvia. The war god having forced Rhea Silvia, the infants were set adrift in a small boat on the flooded Tiber, but it was washed ashore and they were rescued and suckled by a she-#wolf. Faustulus, the royal herdsman, discovered and adopted them. Grown to man's estate, they founded Rome, but strife arose between the brothers, in which Remus was slain. The city, a haven for runaway slaves and homicides, suffered from a shortage of women, which Romulus overcame by arranging for the capture of Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus.
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During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of #Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the #Republic in 510 bc. Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory, the interest in Romulus and Remus never diminished.
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Source: A Dictionary of World Mythology (Oxford)
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#history #historical #archaeology #archaeologist #ancient #ancientrome #mythology #ancientworld #ancient #italianhistory #italy 🇮🇹

This is the #Amorite king #Idrimi, son of Ilimilimma, who ruled in the 15th century BCE. His seat was in #Alalakh (Tel Atcana), but was originally from Halab (Aleppo). On his statue he inscribed his biography in (bad) #Akkadian, with the help of a #Hurrian scribe called šarruwa. He and his family was driven into exile in Emar. From there he went to #Canaan, where he resided for seven years, gathering an army among the Habiru, who were exiles like himself. When the time was right, Idrimi embarked his army on ships and sailed to Mugish, where the city of Alalakh and the surrounding lands welcomed him. He had to deal though with the powerful Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, that was hostile to him. He submitted as a vasal to king Parattarna who stopped his and other vasal kingdoms hostilities towards Idrimi. He invaded #Hatti (most probably the Kizzuwatnan lands that had fallen under Hittite control) and captured seven towns. After that he was able to reorganise his kingdom and re-establish the regular rites for the gods of Alalakh.
#history #archaeology #archaeologist #linguistics #historicallinguistics #palaeography #cuneiform #neareast #levant #bronzeage #amorites #hittites #hurrians #ancientworld #ancient #historical #hatay

The #Palaic #dictionary is now available on www.palaeolexicon.com. Palaic was one of the Indo-European languages that branched off Proto-Anatolian. A small amount of words survive, among which many (non-Indo-European) #Hattian loanwords. It was the language of the country of Palā (cuneiform Pa-la-a-) situated northwest of the #Halys in #Paphlagonia. In the image you see a drachma from #Sinope, a town located in the region formerly known as Paphlagonia.
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Photo credit: Hermann Junghans
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#linguistics #historicallinguistics #dictionary #history #palaeography #anatolia #turkey #asiaminor #archaeology #archaeologist #sinop #ancient #ancientworld #anatolian #anatolianlanguages

You might not recognise this man, but you've certainly heard his stories. If you're a parent, you've probably read one of them to your child(ren). His is the most productive fable writer in history of humankind, namely #Aesop (Greek Αἴσωπος). Known for his #fables where animals speak, he has entertained children for almost 2700 years. Aesop's work is part of the #Greek literary tradition, but he might have been ethnically a #Phrygian who lived and died in Greece. We've picked a less known #fable for you, nevetheless very important. .

Zeus issued a beauty competition for all the baby animals of the forest, and promised a royal reward to the parent animal whose offspring should be deemed the handsomest. The monkey came with the rest, and presented, with all a mother's tenderness, a flat-nosed, hairless, ill-featured young monkey as a candidate for the promised reward. A general laugh saluted her on the presentation of her son. She resolutely said, "I know not whether Zeus will allot the prize to my son, but this I do know, that he is, at least in the eyes of me, his mother, the dearest, handsomest,and most beautiful of all.". When Zeus heard that, he understood that the beauty competion was a mistake and cancelled it. Besides, beauty is in the eye of the beholder and for a parent, the child is the most beautiful creature of them all.
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Image credit: Shakko
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#history #archaeology #ancientlitterature #ancientworld #ancient #ancientgreek #ancientgreece #mythology #fable #bedtimestory

Ormiga : Ulfuar : Krikiar : Iaursalir : islat : serklat
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Orminga, Ulfair, #Greece/#Greeks, #Jerusalem, island, Serkland
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Inscribed sandstone of #Swedish pilgrims who traveled to several places sometime around 1050-1100 AD. Their names were Ormiga and Ulfair.

#history #historical #archaeology #archaeologist #medieval #linguistics #palaeography #inscription #historicallinguistics #runes #runestone #futhark #vikings #oldnorse

On this painted stone relief from Tängelgårda on the island of #Gotland, several people are being depicted drinking from #horns. In the #viking age the most popular alcoholic drinks were #mead and #ale. On the bottom left, two men are battling with swords in front of a large vessel. This could be #Oden stealing mead from the #giant #Suttung.

#history #archaeology #archaeologist #palaeography #art #medieval #vikings #norsemythology #norse #sweden

#Paphlagonia (Hittite Pala) was the region in the central section of northern #Anatolia, area of settlement of the #Paphlagones. In analogy with the proper name Pylaemenes, according to Plin. HN 6,5 there was a country name Pylaemenia, which may be derived from the Palaic name of the country or people. The Palaic #language is attested in scarcely a dozen ritual fragments from the #cuneiform archives of the ancient Hittite capital Hattusa. The documents are contemporary with the #Hittite (sixteenth to thirteenth centuries BC), including a couple of manuscripts from the Old Hittite period. What little #Palaic we have owes its preservation to liturgical use by the #Hittites, chiefly for the cult of the #Hattic god Ziparfa. The language was heavily influenced by Hattic (or a closely related language), but it is not certain whether that is because of the existence of a substrate or simply to the fact that the texts nearly all deal with #Hattian cults.
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We will publish a Palaic dictionary relatively soon on www.palaeolexicon.com
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#history #archaeology #asiaminor #ancientworld #ancient #ancientlanguages #linguistics #historicallinguistics

#Relief pithos from #Cyclades, depicting Potnia (=Mistress) of the animals, the sovereign #goddess of #nature with her arms raised in a posture of epiphany, crowned with flowers and shoots. She is flanked by two confronted lions rearing, though not touching her. Below there are roes walking and deers grazing.
#history #archaeology #archaeologist #ancient #ancientworld #cycladic #aegean #ancientgreece #minoan #museum #art #vase

The #Elymnians were a tribe in western #Sicily, thought by Thucydides to be descendants of #Trojan refugees. Hellanios said they came from southern #Italy when they were forced out by the Oinotroi. Although they were gradually Hellenized, we have some traces of their #language which is called #Elymnian. It was an Indo-European language, that had been previously wrongly linked with Ligurian and Illyrian. It was an Italic dialect, possibly similar to Sicel. On the photo you see a tempel from Segesta and a fragmented Elymian #inscription.

#archaeology #archaeologist #linguistics #historicallinguistics #palaeography #italic #ancientlanguages #ancient #ancientitaly #indoeuropean

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