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Orthodontics 101  Latest updates on Orthodontics. Learn ORTHODONTICS the EASY way using short videos & infograms.

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An in depth understanding of occlusion would take into account the direction in which force is applied to teeth and how the oral structures react to such forces.
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Differential Diagnosis for an open bite case can be achieved using cephalometrics. Why do we need to diagnosis the type of open bite? So that the correct functional appliance can be used to treat the open bite.

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Internal derangement of the TMJ is present when the posterior band of the meniscus is anteriorly displaced in front of the condyle. As the meniscus translates anteriorly, the posterior band remains in front of the condyle and the bilaminar zone becomes abnormally stretched and attenuated. Often the displaced posterior band will return to its normal position when the condyle reaches a certain point.
This is termed anterior displacement WITH REDUCTION.
When the meniscus reduces the patient often feels a CLICK in the joint. In some patients the meniscus remains anteriorly displaced at full mouth opening. This is termed anterior displacement WITHOUT REDUCTION.
Patients with anterior displacement without reduction often have restricted mouth opening. Sometimes there is a tear or perforation of the meniscus. Grinding noises in the joint are often present.

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Normal TMJ function: In a closed mouth position, the thick posterior band of the meniscus lies immediately above the condyle. As the condyle translates forward, the thinner intermediate zone of the meniscus becomes the articulating surface between the condyle and the articular eminence. When the mouth is fully open, the head of the condyle lies beneath the anterior band of the meniscus.

First premolar extraction to resolve an open bite. Open bite cases are the hardest cases to treat in Orthodontics. Besides being the hardest to treat, they are also the most difficult to retain. In order to be successful in retention of such cases it is imperative to control the activity of oro- facial musculature.

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Bone tissue is also classified as Periosteal or Endosteal according to its site of formation. Periosteal bone is always intramembraneous in origin, where as Endosteal bone maybe either intramembraneous or endochondral in origin depending on the site and the mode of formation. An understanding of bone tissue and their origins gives us an insight on the extend to which growth can be modified during Orthodontic treatment.

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V principle of growth: Growth occurs at the condyles following a V shape.
If a cross section of a condyle is taken at younger age and compared to present day. What you'll notice is that size of the head of condyle is the same. Changes only occur in its shape.

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