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Nanea Armstrong-Wassel 

#Keānuenue. #Ānuenue. #Rainbow. 🌈

Rainbows were commonly referred to as the “Cloud of the Gods”. Keānuenue [Lit., the rainbow], the goddess of rainbows, is said to be a younger sister of the gods, Kāne and Kanaloa. She was their trusted messenger and kahu of their foster children. Storied traditions say that she made her home at Waolani, in Nuʻuanu, in the area where the Honolulu Country Club lies today. It was there that the goddess ruled and reared the divine children of the gods and it was said that while she lived there at Nuʻuanu, the area of Waolani always had low-lying rainbows and rainbow-hued clouds covering the land.

Keānuenue had many bodily forms, it is said she appeared as a low-lying rainbow, a smoke-like red mist, and when she traveled you can see her rainbow cloak arching in the sky as she makes her way to her destination. The Gods, Kāne and Lono, and the goddesses, Laka and Hiʻiaka also have been documented as having rainbow kinolau (manifestations). In one story, the goddess Hiʻiaka “appeared over the ocean as a short red rainbow standing at sea level, foretelling a storm.” (Native Planters, 202.) Kāne is said to be take the form of a rainbow with predominating red colors. An ʻōlelo noʻeau [poetical saying] for him in this form goes: Haka ʻula a Kāne, [Kāne’s red perch]. (ʻŌlelo Noʻeau, #415)

Aloha mai kākou,
Please join us for Kaʻiwakīloumoku’s Cultural Event Series presentation, Nā Mele Lei – A Kanikapila Sing-Along, happening on Monday May 15th, 2017 from 7:00 – 8:30pm.
This presentation will be held at Kaʻiwakīloumoku Hawaiian Cultural Center in Ululani Hale on Kapālama campus. We’ll share the background of favorite Hawaiian and Hapa Haole songs with lyrics and chords projected on screen. Bring your ʻohana, pila (instrument), and your voices for an enjoyable evening of music-making – and of course, don’t forget to wear a lei!
For more information contact Kaʻiwakīloumoku Manager, Jamie Fong at or 842-8655.

#ʻĪlālāʻole. #ʻulīʻulī.
Excerpt from hula memoirs written to Mrs. Mary Kawena Pukui by her cousin, Mr. Joseph Ilalaole, a well-respected kumu hula of Puna, Hawaiʻi. December 1936. “The methods you mentioned in your paper on Kauaʻi hulas were very different from those of our people of Kaʻū and Puna. The pupils who wished to learn should always go to the teacher. No teacher offered to teach. When the pupils had been accepted, two men, trained and versed in hula lore were chosen to go to the mountains for greens for the hula altar. The pupils who did not know much were never permitted to go, nor did the kumu go. He remained at home to pray for the success of the project. The men went very early in the morning when all was dark. No word was uttered. Each prayed within himself that there be no hindrance on the way. I have heard of many things gathered for the kuahu in other places that I have visited or from persons with whom I have spoken, but these were the only plants on our altars, the ʻōhiʻa lehua, the halapepe, the maile, the palapalai fern and ʻieʻie vine.
The most kapu instrument was the ʻulīʻulī and none of our hula dancers used it without a short pule chant. Why is the ʻulīʻulī regarded so? It was the only feathered instrument. Feathers were used in the olden days to cover the images of gods and for royalty. A commoner did not dare to wear feathers. Our god had several bird symbols, hence our regard for the feathered instrument, the ʻulīʻulī, as being an aliʻi instrument. If I were to mention this to young people today, they would scoff, but so I was taught by my own kumu.” Mary Kawena Pukui Collection, Bishop Museum Archives. [various locations: HEN, Audio Collections: Interviews, Hula Perspectives. Image on the bottom right is Kuluwaimaka, a cousin of Mrs. Pukui and Mr. Ilalaʻole]

#Pahu. #Naniuaola. #Opuku. #Hawea. #Halalū. #Laʻamaikahiki. #Liloa. #Keakealani. #Kualiʻi. #PahuKapu. #PahuHeiau. #PahuHula. #drum.

This Pahu Heiau (sacred drum used in places of worship) was part of the Hawaiian Government Collection which came to the Bishop Museum in 1891. According to one tradition it was brought from Tahiti by Laʻamaikahiki and kept at Papaenaena heiau on the western slope of Diamond Head. When it became the property of King Kamehameha I it was said to have traveled with him and was kept in the nearest appropriate heiau. The pahu’s personal name is Nani-ua-ola. Moʻolelo tells us that Naniuaola was at one time the sacred drum of the Keakealani, the great-great mother of Kamehameha I.
The pahu kapu or drum used in the heiaus was large and tall. These were used by the priests only for ceremonies and to announce to the surrounding countryside the sex of the new born babes of the ruling families. The sound of the drum beats for a boy was different from that for a girl. So it was used at Ka lae o ka manu heiau when a new member was born to the royal family at Holoholoku. The pahu was first introduced to Kauai by Laʻa who came from Kahiki to see his father, Moʻikeha, between five and six centuries ago.
The sacred drums named ʻOpuku (gather together) and Hawea are also attributed to being brought to these islands by Laʻa-mai-Kahiki, when he came from Tahiti.

From the rich repository of Hawaiian language newspapers we know that the aliʻi nui, Liloa of Hawaiʻi island had a sacred drum named Halalū. (Au Okoa, Nov. 10, 1870)
Further documentation in the nūpepa Hawaiʻi reference that the aliʻi nui of Oʻahu, Kualiʻi, had several sacred pahu.
Mahinu and Kaʻōhao were his sacred drums that he kept at Kailua, Oʻahu and Ka-pahu-‘ula and Ka-‘ahu’ula-punawai (Feather cloak spring) were the names of the sacred drums belonging to Kualiʻi that he kept at Kualoa, Oʻahu.

Hauʻoli Lā Hānau e Mary Kawena Pukui!

Mary Abigail Tui Kawena-ʻula-o-ka-lani-o-Hiʻiaka-i-ka-Poli-o-Pele-ka-wahine-ʻai-honua Wiggin was born on April 20, 1895, the daughter of Henry Nathaniel Wiggin, formerly of Salem, Massachusetts and Paʻahana Kanakaʻole, a pure Hawaiian whose ancestral roots are found in the line of priests and chiefs of the district of Kaʻū on the island of Hawai`i.

Her lifetime served as a bridge between cultures, world views, and continues to bridge successive generations to a knowledge base left generously and purposefully by our kūpuna. A living embodiment of a repository of endless Hawaiian cultural knowledge and history, Mary Kawena Pukui’s life efforts personify her strongly held belief that “Knowledge is life”. In the closing paragraph of her tribute to Kawena, submitted as her nomination for the Nobel Prize in literature, Adelaide Suits of Ann Arbor, Michigan writes, "Mary Pukui's lasting achievement is that, Janus like, she face two worlds and crystallized in her writing the vital elements of both. Indeed, the American philosopher, John Dewey, may have well described the concept which Mary Pukui illustrates in her work. Dewey said that language, when is involves data of the senses, is a creative force which binds us "of" and "by" the world, to give us our shape and form. The Hawaiian way of "knowing" that Mary Pukui reveals to the reader is similarly one of power of effective language, intuitive, qualitative, sound of the organic world of sensory phenomena. In this context, words have an objective reality which are the feeling states in which the meaning of the words originated; these states are revived, rejuvenated and enlarged through active participation in the language experience. Thus the role of language is as a means to an increased awareness and sensitivity to life, a way for human consciousness to grow and flourish.

#MaryKawenaPukui. #HappyBirthday. #KnowledgeIsLife.
The following transcription is of a recording of Mrs. Pukui on March 15, 1965 at her Birch Street home in Honolulu, Oʻahu. [Bishop Museum Archives, Audio Collection. Tape H-194 and HAW 18.7. Also attached to beginning of Tape H-41] “Will Hawaiʻi remain Hawaiʻi without the knowledge of Hawaiian culture? Without it, what will make Hawaii distinctive?
If we make no effort to preserve all we can, what then? What about the untranslated materials yet to be done in the museum, the Archives, the legal documents in the Land Office?

How are cases to be settled when the attorneys do not know what the words written on the documents mean?

I have seen untranslated letters written by Hawaiians to the missionaries in the Children’s Mission House some years ago, and letters from our own Hawaiian missionaries from the Marquesas, Gilbert Islands, and Marshall Islands. Do we not realize that they contain history?

#HauʻoliLāHānau. #HappyBirthday. #MaryKawenaPukui.
On that Saturday morning of April 20, 1895, Kawena arrived with a wail. She was born in her grandmother’s house, called Hale-ola or House of Life on Hāniumalu Hill in the village of Nāʻālehu in the district of Kaʻū on the Island of Hawaiʻi.

Named Mary Abigail Tui Kawena-‘ula-o-ka-lani-o-Hi’iaka-I-ka-poli-o-Pele-ka-wahine-‘ai-honua. She was the daughter of Henry Nathaniel Wiggin of Salem, Massachusetts. The Wiggin family were ship owners and also had large tracks of timberland in Tennessee.

Her mother Ke-liʻi-paʻahana Kanakaʻole, a pure Hawaiian, whose ancestral roots are found in the line of priests of the district of Kaʻū. They were the priests of Pele and kahuna of medicine, canoe building and fishing.
In the tradition of hānai, Mary Kawena Pukui, was given to her grandmother to be hers to rear. With her grandmother, Kawena learned chants and legends of the district, memorized the prayers that were offered while gathering those plants used in healing. The treasures to be handed down from generation to generation were the oral histories, chants and legends relating to both family and district. Kawena was that heir, receiving from her grandmother, mother and other family members those things that became such an important part of her life.
With her keen sense of coloring and symbolism in these chants and legends and the hundreds she translated from old Hawaiian newspaper and other sources during her productive years, she was able with her command of the English language to preserve the poetry and Hawaiian flavor in the English translations for use today and for generations of the future.

#Ipu. #Gourds. #IpuOLono. #HulaʻĀlaʻapapa. #HulaIpuWai.
The Ipu [gourd] is a kinolau [Multiple manifestations or body forms] of the god Lono. One name for the shrine dedicated to Lono as a part of the rain-making ritual was called "Ipu-o-Lono” [Lono’s gourd]. There is one variety of kalo [taro] which was in itself a miniature shrine to the source of rain and this variety of kalo was also named “Ipu-o-Lono”. Hawaiians had two main kinds of ipu: The “Ipu mānolo” which was sweet and edible and the “Ipu ‘awaʻawa" [bitter ipu] that was used for medicine. The ipu was further classified according to shape, color, size and function. Hawaiians made great use of ipu and the following are just some of the uses and types:
An “Ipu nui” was a huge, giant ipu used for storing kapa and clothing. In Kaʻū, Hawaiʻi, the “ipu nui” was called “Lonolau” [Lono plant]. A “Hulilau” was a variety of large ipu used also for stored clothing or food offerings. A “hōkeo or ʻolo” was a long or smaller gourd used to store fishing lines and fishing gear. The hōkeo was also used for carrying kapa in a canoe. An “Ipu kai” was a gourd you used to store foods you would eat with poi and a “huewai” was a gourd to hold water. Many musical instruments were made from the ipu. Ipu heke ‘ole [single gourd drum without heke], ipu heke [gourd drum with top section], ‘ulīʻulī [feathered rattle], ipu hōkiokio [gourd whistle] and the ʻūlili [triple gourd rattles] to name a few. The aliʻi nui, Kakuhihewa had two ipu kūʻaha, (containers which held objects of sorcery) named Manena and Olopio.

#KupunaWisdom. #HawaiianEducation. #KaMōʻī. #KamehamehaSchoolForGirls. #SpecialFiftiethAnniversaryEdition. #1944.

Published 70 years ago… “Little Children Obtain Training In the Home: Hula Halau Interesting Form of Old Hawaiian Education Based on Actual Experience” - “Let your imagination drift for a little while. Let it roam to years long past. I am going to take you with me to old Hawaii. Let us see what the young people were doing in those days. How were they educated and who were their teachers? Education in those days were not a matter of books, classrooms and learned professors. Instead, it was a matter of experiencing and observing in the open air under the direction of kahunas who were experts in certain fields.

In old Hawaii, little children obtained their fundamental training in the home. They learned through the imitation of, discipline from, and association with other members of their family.
In the home, they got much of what we call today, “vocational education.” This was provided through participation in religious ceremonies, recreational events and in the various home activities. By imitation and the trial-and-error method, the child learned to do the manual labor of his social class.
As he grew older, he learned by taking part in the experience. The children learned customs, manners and ways of doing things, not so much by direct teaching, as by direct learning through living, and taking part in the life of the home. Young girls learned by assisting women in making kapa, weaving lauhala mats, and in performing household duties.

#NāMeaPiliIkaHula. #FivesOfHula. #PlantPigs. #SeaPigs. #NāPoʻeKawelewele. #Imihia.
The following is an excerpt from an article written by Imihia to Nohonui Lake entitled “Na Mea Pili I ka Hula” [“Rules of the Hula”]. The article in its entirety has been translated by Mary Kawena Pukui and can be found at the Bishop Museum Archives in the Hawaiian Ethnographic Notes collection. “Ina he kumu maikai kou e hiki ana oia i na haumana i na puaa nahelehele i ole kaua e pilikia ka mea ike ole.
O na puaa nahelehele:
Puaa hiwa………He ama`u.
Pua leo lea……. He kukui.
Puaa ke`a o ka niho…….kukae puaa.
Puaa maka helei……pua ilima.
Puaa olomea…………olomea.
No ka e ailolo ai, e pule ana ke kumu i keia poe haumana. A he pule wale no, nana no e hanai ia lakou me na mea i manao ia e hanai. Ina he poo ka kekahi oia ihola no.
Me ka pule no o ke kumu i na aumakua hula.
Ka inoa o na poe aumakua hula, o Laka, o Kahaula, Papalinaula, Kawaokele, o Laukaieie.
Ka poe kawelewele hula, he elima, o Maile launui, Maile laulii, Mailepakaha, Mailekaluhea, Mailehaiwale.
Ka inoa o ka poe pee hula, he elima, o Kapo, o Kapoulakinau, o Kuamu, Kukaohialaka, a me Hiiaka.
Na inoa o na puaa o ke kai: aholehole [Hawaiian Flagtail (Kuhlia sandvicensis)], amaama [Mullet (Mugil cephalus)], nukunuku puaa [(Rhinecanthus aculeatus, R. rectangulus)], kumu [Goatfish (Parupeneus porphyreus)], a me ka mikiawa [Round herring (Etrumeus micropus)].”

Hula alters were bedecked with symbolic greenery to invoke particular characteristics and attributes of the plant and akua associated with the plant. “At the time when the greenery of the forest was to be gathered, the very early morning was the proper time to go, for then there was utter silence. If a bird chirped or perhaps a cock crowed, or a person was met on the way, then it was useless to go on with that work on that day and it was better to postpone it. It was only when there was absolute silence that one could gather the greenery to bedeck the altar.” The following are plants that were used on the hula altar: “the maile (leaf body of the Maile sisters), the hala pepe (leaf-body-of-Kapo), the ʻōhiʻa lehua (leaf body of Kū-ʻōhiʻa-Laka), the ʻieʻie vine (leaf body of Laukaʻieʻie), the ti leaf because it was a law among the akuas, the lama (another leaf body of Kapo's) that the pupils and teacher might become enlightened (lamalama), the koa so that they might be fearless (koa) in dancing before an audience, the kamanomano so that they might receive expansive (manomano) understanding, the kupukupu fern so that knowledge might grow (kupu) within and make them prosperous, the palai fern (one of the leaf bodies of Hiʻiaka's sacred skirt), the ʻawapuhi (ginger) of the mountains so that knowledge might come through (wa), the pamoho so that the teacher and pupils may always come in contact (pa) with prosperity.” It was not well to gather them without prayers. There should be prayers while on the way and while plucking the greenery. If the teacher was one that knew all the prayers, he would ask the leaf bodies (of the akua), the bird bodies and the animal bodies to clear the path on the way and while returning.” [Source: Mary Kawena Pukui, “Hula”. File- Hula 264.]

#Hoʻolulu. #HoʻoluluPaka. #HoʻoluluPark. #Hilo. #MokuoKeawe. #HiloHanakahiIKaUaKanilehua.

Hoʻolulu was a high chief born around 1794. His mother was Kahikoloa and his father was, Kameʻeiamoku, one of the "Royal Twins" who supported Kamehameha I in his rise to power. He was a trusted advisor to Kamehameha I and when Kamehameha died in 1819, his last wishes were to have his remains hidden in a secret place so that they would not be defiled by anyone. Hoʻolulu and his half-brother, Ulumāheihei Hoapili, were chosen with this honor. There is a story of Hoʻolulu being sent by Hoapili to get the kāʻai (sennit woven container with the bones of Kamehameha) and bring it to Kaloko in Kekaha, North Kona, Hawaiʻi. "Hoʻolulu, carrying the receptacle on his back and a gun in his hand, had reached the road over the lava of Puʻuokaloa when he mistook a rock for a man and shot at it…it was surmised that the bones were being carried away" [Kamakau, Ruling Chiefs, p. 215]

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