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Nanea Armstrong-Wassel 

“Ka Hae Nani o Hawaii,
E mau kou welo ana.” “The Beautiful Flag of Hawaii,
May you forever wave.” [Ke Koo o Hawaii, Buke 1, Helu 1, Aoao 6. Augate 15, 1883. Reposted by 8/1/15]

The Hawaiian Flag!
The Support of Hawaii!! It is this symbol which honors you, O Hawaii; it is a mantle for you to have pride in; and above all things, it is the Support for the roof of your house, secured unwaveringly; and it is worthy of pride and boasting. Its awesome beauty as it flutters on the tips of the winds presents Hawaii across the four corners of this globe.

This symbol, a Flag, the affection for it is indelibly emblazoned in all peoples; and thus they are proud of and boast of the Flag of their own nation. Abuse of the flag of a nation is the abusing of the nation and its people. Rebellions, quarrels, and wars have been started between nations of this world because of the scorning and mistreatment of the flag of one nation by another.

Amongst all patriots, among the true natives who honestly prize their land of birth; amongst those who stand steadfast behind their own nation; it is a lei and a cherished thing; yes; it is not only there that their thirst of aloha for their flag is quenched, but there is so much more—for its waving in victory is the Support [Koo] which sustains their independence by way of their nation. In all lands, the Flag is the symbol by which a nation is established; and a land without this symbol, is a land without a nation.

#AlohaʻĀina. #BernicePauahiBishop. #OurNativeLand. “Our Native Land”

By Ke Aliʻi Bernice Pauahi Bishop ---------------------- “The people of Iceland have a saying that ‘Iceland is the best land on which the sun ever shines.’ If the inhabitants of such a cold and cheerless region think their land the best on the earth, how much more reason have those born in these beautiful Islands to love their native country and to consider it preferable to all others. If I had ever had an introduction to the Muses, I would importune them to assist me just once, that I might in flowing numbers sing my country’s praise- but alas! - They are strangers to me- and I should in vain solicit their aid. I must be content with prose and that of the plainest kind for I am writing in a foreign tongue.

We do indeed feel attached to our own lovely Island home, notwithstanding she is called “a heathen country.” We are proud of her romantic scenery, her mountains and valleys, and everything with which nature has decorated her – Where is there a more romantic and attractive spot than that wonder of the world – Kilauea?

What country can rival ours in beauty, even foreigners themselves being judges? Let the Americans boast of their splendid forests, their extensive prairies, their Niagara falls, their majestic rivers, their wide spread lakes – but have we not beautiful scenery surpassing theirs. But when American travelers visit these shores do they not find wonders here to feast themselves with which they do not elsewhere?

#NūpepaHawaiʻi. #KnowledgeIsYourBestWeapon. #Read. #Heluhelu. #ʻImiNaʻauao. #ʻIkeKūpuna.
#MahaloMaryKawenaPukui. #BishopMuseumHawaiianEthnographicNotes.

In the mid-nineteenth century, Hawaiʻi was the most literate nation in the world. This amazing accomplishment occurred within less than thirty years of the Calvinist missionaries introducing a written language and printing press to Hawai’i. Evidence of Hawaiʻi’s literacy proficiency can be found in the nearly hundred different newspapers that were published from 1834 to 1948. Estimated accounts by those who specialize in Hawaiian language newspapers approximate that more than 100,000 pages (of newspaper-sized-paper) were written, capturing practically every aspect of Hawaiian life, culture, literature and history. Not only were these Hawaiian language repositories safekeeping our ‘ike Hawaiʻi for future generations, but they were also capturing how Hawaiians were engaging and interacting with the larger global world around them. And most importantly, we receive this information from a Hawaiian worldview.

A working replica of the first Ramage printing press is located in the original hale paʻi (press house) at the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives (HMH) in Honolulu, Oʻahu. The original printing press produced the very first printed sheet in Hawaiʻi. This first printed impression was made by Governor Keʻeaumoku (George Cox Kahekili Keʻeaumoku), the younger brother of Kaʻahumanu, Kalākua Kaheiheimālie, Namahana and Kuakini in January of 1822.

#KūpunaWisdom. #Aloha. #Lokomaikaʻi. #LoveAndKindness. #Everybodyhasaplace. #KnowYourPlace. #Kamakau. #1868. [“SOME OF THE PRACTICES OF THE HAWAIIANS” (“O ke ano o kekahi mau mea o ka Lahui Hawaii.”) Translated by Mary Kawena Pukui]

Excerpt from an article published in “Ka Nupepa Kuokoa” on August 8, 1868 by respected Hawaiian historian and scholar, Samuel M. Kamakau. “8. My people were a loving people from the chiefs, the prominent people down to the commoners.

A pleasant people, hospitable, welcoming visitors, soft spoken, gentle mannered and as delightful as the gentle morning breeze that comes out of the forest and damp mountain regions of the distant upland. Cool and refreshing to the brow. ✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨. "Malie i huihui ai kuu manawa,
Gentle and refreshing to my brow,
He malihini ko ka hale,
Is the visitor who has come to our house,
Ua hiki ma-i-hiki-e-
He has come, he has come." ✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨. A people ashamed to be where they were unwanted, to go constantly to the homes of others, to look around to see what can be seen, to behave in a boisterous manner, jumping around from place to place, to speak out of turn, to start a quarrel, to gossip, to act the vagrant and to be sour tempered.

Mine were a gentle people, quiet, careful, well behaved and as still as a blossom of the grass. ✨✨✨✨✨✨✨✨. "Ua like ka paha me ka mauu kuku,
Perhaps like the grass with a raspy blade,
Me ka mauu nene aala,
The fragrant nene grass,
Hina wale-hina wale-hina, wale-la.
It gently falls, falls, falls."

The Handys and Mrs. Pukui beautifully express in their book, "Native Planters", how the occupation of the Hawaiian farmer was highly-esteemed and honored at a time where "to the Hawaiian planter, taro was not only the staff of life, it was wealth. Abundance meant plenty of taro, and plenty of taro implied ample water supply." This is from one of my favorite sections in the book entitled, "Breeding and Feeding: The Groundwork of Culture". "The humblest members of the community were those whose lives were devoted to farming. This calling had the advantage of establishing a permanent relationship with the land. The plants that the countrymen cultivated were rooted in the soil, and the cultivator was thereby given permanence in relationship to the land...The people regulated their lives in accordance with the locale and the plants that they cultivated. The families which through generations had cultivated the lands on which they lived were normally secure and stable.
The gardener was a man of peace, concerned with the production of food and the utilization of his natural resources, rather than with prowess...His cultural heritage was that of a seasoned and mature knowledge of the art of gardening and of the seasons, weather, water, and soil.
The planter did not have a calculating mind. He was not a trader. There was sharing and giving and receiving instead of trade. These stemmed from the motives of practicality, sympathetic interest in the general welfare of the scattered ʻohana and as a matter of self-respect. Generosity was admired, and it enhanced both self-respect and prestige.
His temperament which by reason of comfort and the beauty and bountifulness of nature, luxuriated in the sense of well-being and expressed itself in exuberant cheerfulness; in a word, he enjoyed life wholly, and in consequence felt and spontaneously expressed aloha.
Affection and geniality was the normal mode of consciousness of these planters. Their labor was hard and steady, and this too was a source of sound vigorous physique. But it was done with a spontaneous will and independence...with cheerful enjoyment and acceptance of its necessity."

In 1829, the Governor of Oʻahu, Boki, supporting Kaʻahumanu’s decree to help the missionaries educate the Hawaiian populace gifted the lands of Ka Punahou to Hiram Bingham and the Sandwich Island Mission, which was the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions’ satellite station in Hawaiʻi. The land gift was given with the intent that the ABCFM would build a school for native Hawaiian children. “In 1836, following the recommendation of the American Board, the mission voted a resolution calling for the establishment of a boarding school for native children on each of the larger islands. It was expected that one of these schools would be located at Punahou near Honolulu.” (Kuykendall, Hawaiian Kingdom V.I. p. 112) “The plan of having a school for Hawaiian boys at Punahou was not carried out, instead the missionaries set up there a school for their own children, who by 1840 had become so numerous and of such an age as to require some special provisions for their education.” (Kuykendall, Hawaiian Kingdom V.I. p. 113)

175 years ago on this day, Punahou School held its first class with 15 students in attendance.

105 years ago on this day, July 10, Duke Kahanamoku won the gold medal in the 100-meter dash in swimming at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. Kahanamoku would go on to participate in two more Olympics (Antwerp in 1920 and Paris in 1924) where he continued to break numerous world records and won a combination of five Olympic medals.

On July 4, 1894 the Republic of Hawaiʻi was proclaimed by the provisional government that usurped Queen Liliʻuokalani.
On July 4, 1960 at 12:01 a.m. at Fort National Monument in Baltimore, Maryland the U.S. flag with its 50th star was first officially displayed.
Contributed by Hoʻokahua, Kamehameha Schools.

On January 17, in the year 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was illegally overthrown.

The following remembrance recorded by Johanna Wilcox speaks of the overwhelming sadness felt by the population after the overthrow and annexation of Hawaiʻi to the United States of America.

I was born a citizen of the Republic of Hawaiʻi in this City of Honolulu on February 18, 1898. Six months later, on August 12, 1898, Hawaiʻi became a Territory of the United States by annexation, at a formal noontime ceremony held in front of ʻIolani Palace. My mother and father and most Hawaiians stayed away from that heart-breaking ceremony.
An interesting incident took place shortly before the changeover. Several members of the Royal Hawaiian Band were so disturbed and unhappy that they hurriedly left the scene crying unashamedly when it was time to lower the flag of Hawaii. The sympathetic German bandmaster, Captain Henri Berger, understood their feelings and so did not attempt to stop them. So, only a part of the membership of the Royal Hawaiian Band remained to play the national anthem “Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī” when Hawaiʻi’s flag was hauled down. The “Stars and Stripes” were then raised over ʻIolani Palace; a 21-gun salute was fired, while the band from an American warship played “The Star Spangled Banner.” An event of this magnitude would ordinarily call for gala celebrations that night. However, there were no celebrations as there was too much sadness, too much bitterness and resentment prevalent in the atmosphere and the authorities were afraid of riots by the unhappy frustrated Hawaiians.

#Kōlea. #PacificGoldenPlover. “Clarice B. Taylor’s Tales About Hawaii.” in the “Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 1-1-1953. “THE HAOLE: A PLOVER SHOOTING CREATURE”
Many a Hawaiian mother has pondered the characteristics of her offspring with the mixed blood of a haole (white man) husband and her own Hawaiian blood.
Just as mothers and fathers are prone to see the characteristics of the mother’s family or the father’s predominate in a child, so does the Hawaiian mother of a hapa-haole child see her haole husband in the child.
Instead of saying, “That’s the haole in him,” the Hawaiian mother would point out haole behavior by using a saying. An onlooker who did not understand the saying would be left completely in the dark.

For instance, a favorite expression with old Hawaiians was “A plover shooting haole.” [Haole kī kōlea! “Said in exasperation of a white person. The haole, in going plover hunting, shoots with his gun, killing some, maiming others. The maimed can fly elsewhere to die or become victims of some other animal. But the Hawaiian goes quietly at night with a net. He takes what he wants and lets the others escape unharmed.” ʻŌlelo Noʻeau, #477.] POSITIONS IN SOCIETY
This arose from the fact that the Hawaiians caught the plover for its feathers and its food value. Their method of catching the birds was by snaring or netting them.
The art of the bird catcher ranked among the skilled professions of old Hawaii. Bird catchers belonged to distinguished families who were ranks above ordinary men and women who lived on the ‘back lands.’
Sometimes the plover was kapu to the nobility. No commoner dared eat the bird meat. But, the plover came from Alaska in large numbers in those days and was often caught as food for commoners as well as the aliʻi.

#KnowledgeIsLife. #audio. #preservation. #UaMauKeEaIKaʻĀinaIkaPono.

The caption in a newspaper clipping from August 18, 1957 reads: “RECORDING IN KALIHI –Ruby Kinney adjusts tape recorder as 85-year-old Kaleohano Kalili prepares to record ancient Hawaiian chants. Mr. Kalili lives in Kalihi but spends most of his time at Laie with his brother, Hamana, a well known hukilau fisherman.” In a letter addressed to Bishop Museum Trustee, C.M. Hyde, dated June 14, 1898, Charles Reed Bishop, founder of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, wrote: “A number of years ago I attended a feast given by Liliuokalani, then Princess, at which two old natives, male and female, recited with excellent effect some old meles, one of which was said to have belonged to A Paki [Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop’s father]. It occurred to me that those chants and others could and should be preserved by aid of phonograph. It seems to me worthwhile for the Museum to own a good phonograph and to secure a considerable number of native meles (ancient and modern) songs, speeches, etc. for preservation. What do you say to it?” In less than 20 years, Charles Reed Bishop’s vision for preservation was successfully realized. Carrying out Bishop’s wishes and those of the Territorial Legislature, the Roberts Collection of chants, recorded originally onto Edison cylinders in the early 1920-1921, provides one of the most accessible links to traditional cultural knowledge for trained hula practitioners, layman researchers, and academic scholars.

[KĀHILIS by Mrs. Mary Kawena Pukui with interview excerpts of Mrs. Lahilahi Webb, Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Liliʻuokalani.] When Queen Liliʻuokalani died, she lay in state at Kawaiahaʻo Church. The tall kāhilis stood in their places around the bier which was most impressive, but it was the waving of the hand kāhilis that fascinated Mrs. Pukui the most. A row of men or women stood on either side of the bier, holding kāhilis of uniform length and size. All moved together in one direction, if to the right, then all moved to the right. Then a lift, a pause, a lowering gently together, then all moved in unison to the left. Every move was timed exactly and perfectly. Each group remained for about an hour, then another would take their places behind the kāhili wavers and at a signal grasped the handles at the exact moment, while the group in front released their hold and stepped back as their replacements stepped forward. There was no break in the kāhili waving at any time. There were no moves executed in a haphazard way.
It was Lahilahi Webb who told Kawena that the large kāhilis were often dismantled and the feathers placed in containers to preserve them from dust and wear, with only a few kāhilis kept standing for everyday use and the stored feathers only brought out and reassembled for state occasions. The hand kāhilis were always in use.

#Niu. #Coconut.
Wāhi ka niu.

Niu (cocos nucifera) coconut is one of the revered forms of the god, Kū. The niu was particularly a tree for men. Women were forbidden to eat coconut and they were prohibited from using any part of the ceremonial niu hiwa. Women were allowed to use the niu lelo’s stump and fronds for other uses though. (Pukui, Native Planters, pp.168 -170). Like the kalo plant, Hawaiians used all parts of the tree.

The niu was associated with husbandry (warfare). Wars were started by cutting down the niu of an adversary.
The niu grows almost anywhere on lava rock and was used for water. Coconut water and coconut cream were both called wai niu and wai o ka niu. Other terms for coconut water are wailewa and wai pūʻolo. Other terms for the cream are kai niu and niu wali.

Kalapana, Hawaiʻi was famed for their reclining niu trees (nā niu moe a Kalapana). This was an ancient custom of that locality to commemorate an important event, where young trees were bent down to grow in a reclining position. In 1950 there were two such trees remaining in the Kalapana area, one that Queen Emma ceremonially helped to pull down, known as Queen Emma's tree and the other of Ululani Baker, once governor of Hawaiʻi in the days of the monarchy.

Kaimū, Puna was also famous for their niu groves (Ka malu niu o Huʻehuʻewai.)
Pōkaʻī, Waiʻanae on Oʻahu was the largest and best known coconut grove on the island and famed in song and chant (Ka malu niu o Pōkaʻī). Another famous grove on Oʻahu belonging to Kakūhihewa was in Waikīkī at Helumoa.

Niuloahiki is the god of coconut trees and had three forms—an eel, man, and coconut tree.

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