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Medicaltalks  Medicine sometimes snatches away health, sometimes gives it. Sharing the medical story through photos. 😷

Check her posts out. @beautybydrcat is an inspirational woman on IG. Harvard & UCLA graduate. Beverly Hills Plastic Surgeon, mom, wife, publisher, fitness and beauty expert. goals for real. A great account to follow for daily surgery videos, medical facts and inspiration. @beautybydrcat

Open heart surgery - a RN holding a healthy heart ready for transplant!
The donor was a young male in his 20s that got in a car accident and took a direct hit to the chest.
The recipient was a 50-year-old with congestive heart failure and the transplant was an absolute success!
Photo credit @m.idas

Pediatric vascular system in all its glory and diversity, imperfectly branching and connecting!

Whoops, meningioma alert!
Meningiomas, as the name implies, are originated from the meninges, more specifically the meningothelial (arachnoidal) cells, and are most common benign intracranial tumor. They are benign tumors that can compress adjacent brain tissue, with frequently with defined borders, attached to the inner surface of the dura mater, and often enabling complete surgical removal, which offers the best chance for a cure.
This picture shows the meningioma attached intradurally and the site of cerebral compression.
The neurosurgeon opens the skull through a craniotomy to enable full access to the meningioma. The goal of surgery is to remove the meningioma completely, including the fibers that attach it to the coverings of the brain and bone.
Although the goal of surgery is to remove the tumor, the first priority is to preserve or improve the patient's neurological functions.

Transillumination of a newborn's head!
This case is an example of a rare condition called Hydranencephaly, characterised by destruction of the cerebral hemispheres which are transformed into a membranous sac containing cerebrospinal fluid and the remnants of cortex and white matter.
Transillumination is the shining of a light through a body area or organ to check for abnormalities. The room lights are dimmed or turned off so that the area of the body may be seen more easily. A bright light is then pointed at that area. This test may be done along with other tests to diagnose hydrocephalus in newborns or infants, hydrocele in males breast lesions or cysts in females, and even sinusitis!
In general, transillumination is not an accurate enough test to rely on. Further tests, such as an x-ray, CT, or ultrasound, are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

A rare look into a pediatric heart transplant procedure - the beginning of a new life.
The recipient was a 14-month-old with a congenital heart problem.
This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population.
Congenital malformations are still the most common indication for infant heart transplantation (most common indication is Cardiomyopathy). Infants with serious congenital heart disease generally present in the newborn period with varying degrees of cyanosis, tachypnea, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, poor perfusion, feeding intolerance, and other symptoms of heart failure.
An increasing number of congenital lesions are diagnosable by means of fetal ultrasonography.
The failing heart may be treated for a short period of time by medications, but in the absence of other correctable diseases without either replacing the heart (transplantation) or mechanical circulatory support, the destiny of the patient will take a fatal run.
Photo by @jackdanielhoyer

Looks like spaghetti, but these are hundreds of live worms manually extracted from the intestines!! Ascariasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by the Ascaris lumbricoides parasite (a round worm). The infection passed by a fecal oral route from the infected feces of another person and when one is having his hands in a contaminated dirt, or by consuming contaminated vegetables or fruits that weren't washed or cooked properly.
The heavy infections can cause intestinal blockage and subsequently obstruction.
Multiple worms can form a large bolus, resulting in mechanical obstruction of the bowel lumen. This is the most frequent cause of Ascaris- related bowel obstruction.
In addition, the worm bolus may serve as a lead point in intussusception, where one intestinal segment invaginates into the adjoining intestinal lumen, causing obstruction.
During extreme conditions, such as inflammation, starvation, or worm bolus obstruction, an ulcers may develop and cause perforations.
This complicated condition is requiring an emergency surgery and the worms should be manually extracted.

This close-up of the frontal lobe is so close that we can almost see its thoughts!
Photo by @rpaglioli

Knee replacement surgery, or knee arthroplasty!!!
This is a common routine operation to relief a significant, disabling pain caused by a knee that is severely damaged by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or post-traumatic arthritis, where the diseased knee joint is replaced with an artificial material (called prosthesis). The knee is a hinge joint which provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg. The thighbone (or femur) abuts the large bone of the lower leg (tibia) at the knee joint. During a total knee replacement, the end of the femur bone is removed and replaced with a metal shell. The end of the lower leg bone (tibia) is also removed and replaced with a channeled plastic piece with a metal stem. Depending on the condition of the kneecap portion of the knee joint, a plastic "button" may also be added under the kneecap surface.
Photo by @medicalphotographer

Tiny little feet peeking from an enclosed amniotic sac!
This baby was born via c-section with the sac still completely intact and his feet visible pressing against the clear membrane of the sac.

The brain is a 87-year-old having a cerebral atherosclerosis!!! You can see atheroma plaque in basal artery, vertebral artery and in the Willis polygon (circle of Willis). An atheroma is an accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall. The material consists of mostly macrophage cells, or debris, containing lipids, calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.
These structural and functional changes in the vascular wall eventually leads to the narrowing of the arterial lumen and restricting the cerebral blood flow.
The plaque build-up can be visualized with an angiogram and is usually done with MRI to quantify the plaque anatomy and composition.
Given the symptoms, anti-coagulation medications reduce the likelihood of further buildup while also trying to break down the current build up on the surface without an embolism forming. Patients with severe stenosis that are at risk for impending stroke endovascular treatment is used. These include angioplasty, stent insertion, or bypass the blocked area.
Photo by @Medizzy app.

Biggest polycystic kidneys on earth!!! Notice how both kidneys demonstrate a large number of cysts of variable size (from a few mm to many cm), which are filled with fluid of variable colour - from clear or straw coloured to altered blood or chocolate coloured to purulent when infected.
In Polycystic kidney disease, the clusters of fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, interfere the kidneys ability to filter waste products from the blood. The growth of cysts causes the kidneys to become enlarged and can lead to kidney failure.
The disease frequently affect the kidneys, although patients may develop cysts in other organs such as liver, pancreas, ovaries and spleen.
Furthermore, it may even affect the heart or brain. If it affects the patient’s brain, it can hence lead aneurysm. If affects his heart, then the valves may become floppy leading heart murmur.
Frequent complications are dangerously high blood pressure (hypertension), pain in the back or sides, blood in the urine (hematuria), recurrent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and heart valve abnormalities.
A non-invasive, reliable and inexpensive diagnosis is made by ultrasound.
There's currently no cure for PKD, but current treatment to manage problems caused by the condition are dialysis and transplant.

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