adrianozampolini adrianozampolini

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Adriano Zampolini  “Veni, vidi et non Vinsi” #aviation and #history #geek from the #eternalcity🇮🇹

One of the least remembered Late Roman fortifications in the Eastern Roman Empire is the massive wall built by Emperor Anastasius I.
It was 56 km long and had wall forts to garrison troops.
The wall was most probably built by the soldiers themselves and was erected to protect the rich territory of Thrace and Constantinople from Northern incursions(modern day Turkey).
The wall was later abandoned in the 7th century AD due to lack of funds and manpower.
#wall #turkey #thrace #fort #anastasius #constantinople #roman #east #army #castrum #rome

The Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno loved to play the greco-roman board game known as Tabula.
Zeno was incredibly unlucky when playing the game and one time, one of his most unfortunate games was recorded.
The game is reconstructed in the image, Zeno has red pieces.
This little story alleviated the harsh image that people had of Zeno at the time, who was a man born in the mountains of Central Anatolia.
#emperor #game #ancient #byzantine #rome #zeno #luck #gioco #boardgame

The reign of Western Roman emperor Majorian was characterized by great action by the emperor himself to restabilize western rome and regain lost territories.
Having been a military commander himself, Majorian achieved success after success in the North.
With the aim of retaking the rich lands of North Africa from the Vandals, Majorian prepared a major campaign with the aid of germanic auxiliaries and militarized merchant vessels.
Majorian’s fleet assembled at Carthago Nova in Spain was attacked and destroyed by the Vandals who were led by the cunning Geiseric.
Majorian tried to restablish the rule of law inside the empire by imposing new Novellae(decrees) on the population.
He was betrayed however by his old collegue, the general Ricimer, who had him assassinated.
#majorian #emperor #coin #lateroman #roman #general #ricimer #rome #carthage #vandals #art #imperial

The impressionable Late Roman emperor Honorius was mostly dominated by his best general, the Magister Militum Flavius Stilicho.
Stilicho was an effective commander and, with limited resources, managed to defend the Western Empire egregiously.
His increasing influence at the Roman court of Ravenna however procured him lots of enemies.
One of these was Olympius, a cunning courtier with a staunch anti-barbarian view of roman society.
Stilicho was technically “half barbarian” and had used foreign war prisoners and alloer to strenghten the regular roman legions.
Olympius started to plot against Stilicho and convinced Emperor Honorius that the powerful general would eventually have him murdered.
Honorius was all ears and sent a company of the Scholae Palatinae, the imperial guards, in order to assassinate his best general in Ravenna.
Stilicho had failed to talk to Honorius about Olympius and took refuge in a church, which was promptly sorrounded by the imperial guards.
An imperial officer had a document signed by Honorius which guaranteed the life of the general if he came out.
Stilicho went out of the church doors but the same imperial officer showed another document which condemned Stilicho to death.
The general was promptly beheaded and, as soon as his his head touched the ground, Olympius descended on Stilicho’s germanic troops, slaughtering them and putting them to flight.
#ravenna #empire #stilicho ##art #general #roman #court #onorio #army #imperial #guards

The Sack of Rome by the Vandals in 455 AD was the result of the Vandalic dominance of the seas sorrounding the Western side of Italy.
With the merchant fleet fleet of Carthage converted into military vessels, the Vandalic king Genseric started to raid the coasts of Southern Italy and Sicily.
The Western Roman empire was not capable of beating back the Vandals as their best general Flavius Aetius had been assassinated in Ravenna.
The ethnic german but roman general Ricimer was the only one capable of confronting the Vandals directly.Genseric targeted rome in 455 ad, aiming at sacking the city and establishing his authority over the western empire.
The sack was not as violent as it was portrayed, as Genseric promised to the bishop of Rome not to kill anyone.
#sack #rome #vandals #germanic #carthage #coin #roma #italy #fleet #ricimer #ravenna

Eastern Roman”Byzantine” art, ivory, IX century AD
#rome #byzantine #art #ivory #italy #palazzovenezia #roma #costantinopoli

In his “Strategikon”, the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) soldier emperor Maurice wrote in each infantry formation, the most experienced and well equipped men should be placed at the front(to sustain the enemy attack)and at the rear of the formation(to keep the formation steady and discourage routes).
Each unit should equip its members with shields of the same color and soldiers should be trained to march and fight while in testudo formation.
Soldiers should cut their hair short and maintain discipline and unit cohesion at all costs.
Maurice’s military philosophy was that of a typical roman general, the fighting was done in units and individual heroism and glory were looked down upon.
#maurice #tactics #army #byzantine #easternrome #roman #testudo #troops

The Eastern Roman “Byzantine” army underwent several major changes at the end of the 6th century AD.
The new Thematic system was introduced by dividing the empire into large administrative provinces which were defended by regional armies.
The central Tagmata (elite professional regiments) were stationed around the capital Constantinople and could be used by the Emperor on campaign in order to provide a central core to the regional armies that could join the campaign.
The image shows a soldier of the elite Tagmata armed with a Kontos(spear), sword, chainmail and lamellar cuirass.
#byzantine #roman #army #professional #troops #tagmata #thema #soldier #mail #armor #empire

The defense of walled cities during the Late Roman Age was not exclusively an affair delegated to the garrison troops.
The whole city population formed an armed militia and helped reinforcing fortifications with manpower and labour.
Vegetius tells us that citizens were essential in the defense of a city, even when the enemy was inside the walls.
Cases like the siege of Aquileia by the Huns demonstrate the tenacity of the citizenry in defending their city when the soldiers could not provide an adequate defense.
#city #siege #walls #citizen #lateroman #garrison #vegetius #attack #roman #fort #mura #town

R Type Final, probably the best spaceship game ive ever played in my childhood.
A plot that you have to discover by you’re self.
A last ditch attempt by Humanity to defeat its enemies.
Its a pity the serie has ended a long time ago.
#rtype #spaceship #game #humanity #game #ps2 #ship

The Legio V Parthica was a late roman unit organized and formed by emperor Diocletian to serve on the Eastern Frontier.
The Legion was part of the headstrong defense of the city-fortress of Amida against the assaults of the armies of the Sassanid Persian king.
The Legio V Parthica was destroyed when the city was taken and its tribunes and commanders(including Count Aelianus)were executed by the Sassanids.
The legion was never reformed after the event.
#legion #army #lateroman #legion #legio #amida #fortress #sassanid #count #art #siege #persian #garrison

When the roman emperor Julian invaded Sassanid Mesopotamia with a huge professional army, he fell victim to a javelin during the campaign and died soon after.
The Roman Army started a coordinated retreat towards the border under the command of the new emperor Jovian.
Senior units like the Ioviani and Herculiani were placed at the rear in order to repulse Sassanid Persian cavalry attacks.
While the Ioviani and Herculiani were successfull(by using a phalanx type defensive formation) the rest of the roman army started to loose cohesion under the constant attacks of Persian cataphracts and missile cavalry.
Western units like the Petulantes and the Brachiati felt uneasy in the desert and their fighting ability was hindered because of this.
In the end, the Roman emperor Jovian had to accept a humiliating peace treaty with the Sassanids which resulted in the safety of the army but in the loss of strategic fortresses and territory to the enemy.
#army #roman #lateroman #march #sassanid #esercito #emperor #julian #mesopotamia #cavalry

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